Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Identify the types of risks a business is exposed to - Assignment Example For instance, and organization that found out fraudulent payments were being paid out put in place measures to detect and account for payments not made within the accounting system, such as petty cash and manual checks. This response was in recognition that adequate internal controls and auditing were key elements in fraud deterrence initiatives, and that upper management and accounting personnel committed 50 percent of the occupational fraud. Apart from an enterprise resource planning application for detection on the large scale, the fraud risk management program included written policies on what was expected of senior management by the board of directors regarding fraud risk. The organization also undertook to assess fraud risk exposure periodically to uncover potential schemes. Such structured responses are designed to minimize chances of alerting the fraudsters, and are supplemented by reporting process aimed at soliciting input on probable fraud (Cohen, 2006). This way, it was p ossibly to detect curious payment patterns and missing or altered documents, such as backdating and inconsistent invoice serialization and amounts under specific approved
Monday, October 28, 2019
Writ of Habeas Corpus Essay Habeas Corpus demands a court to a jailer to produce the prisoner and announce the charges (Levin-Waldman, 2012). Habeas Corpus is an ancient common law that applies to all Americans and anybody in the United States at the time of their arrest. It is a legal procedure that requires a person to be brought in front after the have been arrested/ taken into custody. This is done so that the government to show cause to why the liberty of that person is being taken away and to let the person know what they are being charged with. Habeas Corpus is fundamental to American and all other English common law derivative systems of jurisprudence. It is the ultimate lawful and peaceable remedy for adjudicating the providence of libertyÃ¢â¬â¢s restraint (http://www.slate.com). History of Habeas Corpus The history of Habeas Corpus is an ancient law that has been used since the middle ages. It appears to be predominately of Anglo-Saxon common law origin but the exact origins are not really known. Even though the origin of Habeas Corpus is unknown it has been used in Europe for centuries. Its principle that has been used since the middle ages by various writs (http://www.slate.com). Habeas Corpus has evolved and changed a bit over the years, but it has basically remained the same. Habeas Corpus states that a person who has been arrested or in custody be brought before a court. Habeas Corpus has been used in the United States since the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. The Writ of Habeas Corpus was established by the British and was generally regarded as part of the fundamental protections guaranteed by law to each citizen (http://www.slate.com). Article I, Section 9 of the US Constitution guarantees the availability of the writ of habeas corpus (http://search.proquest.com). Habeas corpus serves as a tool or legal defense by people that are detained by the government. Habeas Corpus has also been used by detained suspected terrorist/ enemy combatants to challenge the government as to the legality of their detention. Since the beginning of the War on Terror hundreds of suspected terrorist/ enemy combatants have been held at the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba detention facility. Some of the detainees that are held there today have been in detention since January 2002. This has created many debates because many people feel that they are being held illegally in direct violation of the US Constitution and International Law. Suspension of Habeas Corpus Article I, Section 9 of the US Constitution, states that, Ã¢â¬Å"the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it (http://www.slate.com). This means that every American is entitled to Habeas Corpus and that the only way that the government can suspend Habeas Corpus is during a rebellion or a direct threat to public safety. This is one of the ways that the Bush Administration justified detaining hundreds of suspected terrorist for years in detention facilities like Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Their justification was that the suspected terrorist posed a threat to the safety and security of the American people and the United States Government. They also used President Abraham LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to suspend Habeas Corpus in April 27, 1861 as an example of how and way it was important to detain suspected terrorist. On April 27, 1861, President Lincoln suspended the habeas corpus privilege on points along the Philadelphia-Washington route (http://www.slate.com). This was done after 20,000 Confederate sympathizers in Baltimore tried to stop Union troops from traveling from one train station to another en route to Washington, causing a riot (http://www.slate.com). President Lincoln viewed the Confederate sympathizers as a threat to public safety, and their actions could also be considered a rebellion against the United States Government. After President Lincoln ordered the suspended the habeas corpus, his Generals detained anybody whom they believed posed a threat to Union troops or public safety. Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror After the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States and the beginning of the War on terror the Bush Administration enacted one of the most controversial policies of their administration. This new policy enacted created many heated debates within the United States three branches of the U.S. Government, because it authorized the US Military to detain suspected terrorist/ enemy combatants for an undetermined amount of time. After the beginning of the War on Terror the Bush Administration order to use military commissions to try enemy combatants, which includes a provision denying habeas corpus rights to those subject to the order in federal court (http://search.proquest.com). These new polices also suspend the use of habeas corpus and it was justified by stating that these suspected terrorist were detained outside of the United States and they were being held at a location outside of the jurisdiction of the US Government. In later provision of these polices stated that the foreign nationals who have been held at Guantanamo Bay for six years without meaningful due process protections cannot be deprived of habeas corpus rights by either the president or Congress (http://search.proquest.com). Boumediene v. Bush Several law suits have been filed against the United States by detainees or families of the detainees in regards to the illegal detention of foreign nationals that are suspected to be terrorist or enemy combatants. In the case of Boumediene v. Bush the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Boumediene was a detainee that was being held at military detention in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba by the United States. In this case the United States argued that Guantanamo Bay was not part of the United States, and under the 1903 lease between the United States and Cuba. Cuba had ultimate sovereignty over the territory even though it was being lease to the United States. But under the same lease agreement the United States had complete jurisdiction and control over the Naval Base (http://search.proquest.com). The Boumediene v. Bush case was head alone the case of Al Odah v. United States. Both of these cases challenged the legality of detainee detention at the military base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and it also challenged the constitutionality of the Military Commissions Act (MCA) of 2006. The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006 was drafted after the Supreme Courts decision on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. Military Commissions Act authorizes trial by military commission for violations of the law of war. The MCA was signed by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006 (http://search.proquest.com). On June 12, 2008, Supreme Court Justice Kennedy delivered stated that court ruled on 5-4 majority, stating that the prisoners being held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps had a right to the habeas corpus under the United States Constitution. They also stated that the Military Commissions Act of 2006 was an unconstitutional suspension of that right (http://search.proquest.com). This decision was based on the fact that the United States had complete jurisdiction and control, over the territory (Guantanamo Bay Naval Base). Even though Cuba retained ultimate sovereignty over the territory, the United States still had control and jurisdiction over the Naval Base. This means that the people detained as enemy combatants at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base were entitled to the writ of habeas corpus protected in Article I, Section 9 of the U.S. Constitution (http://search.proquest.com). Many people believe that enemy combatant should not have the same rights as an American Citizen. This can especially be said about suspected terrorist and anybody that threatens that safety and security of the United States. The Bush Administration justified the detention of hundreds of detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, by stating that they were arrested outside of the United States and that is being held outside of United States territory. President Bush as the as commander-in-chief did use the US Constitution to justify his actions, Article I, Section 9 of the US Constitution, states that, Ã¢â¬Å"the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it (http://www.slate.com). This means that the commander-in-chief can suspend the writ of habeas corpus in the interest of public safety. I believe that this is a very valid justification as long as a reasonable person believes that there is still a threat to the public safety. Article 1, Section 9, Clause 2 of the US Constitution, gives Congress power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Article 1, Section 9, Clause 2 further states that only the Federal Government and not the States, has the authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. It does not specifically state who has the authority to suspend the writ. The role of the Supreme Court in protecting civil liberties, including the judicial philosophy is very important. The Supreme Court ensures that our constitutional rights are not violated and it also serves as part of the checks and balances that our government has. The Supreme Court has played a very important role in the war on terror and the court decisions have changed the way enemy combatants are detained and prosecuted in US Courts. The Supreme Court ruled that even if an enemy combatant is detained overseas and held outside of the United States, the detainee still have constitutional rights and the writ of habeas corpus does apply to them. After reading and analyzing the writ of habeas corpus, the Bush AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s detention justification and the US Supreme Court rulings, I feel that the President and the United States Government should be given a little more flexibility in regards to the writ of habeas corpus. I can understand why the Bush Administration detained these suspected terrorist/ enemy combatants and how they can justify that these people are dangerous and that they do pose a threat to the American people. But I also feel that keeping them detained indefinitely without due process is wrong. I do think that the military should handle suspected terrorist/ enemy combatants that are arrested/ detained outside of the United States. References Staab, J. B. (2008). The war on terrors impact on habeas corpus: The constitutionality of the military commissions act of 2006. Journal of the Institute of Justice and International Studies. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213962970?accountid=32521 Redish, M. H., McNamara, C. (2010). Habeas corpus, due process and the suspension clause: A study in the foundations of american constitutionalism. Virginia Law Review. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/759595988?accountid=32521 Levin-Waldman, O. M. (2012). American government. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Greenberg, D. (2001). Lincolns Crackdown Suspects jailed. No charges filed. Sound familiar? Slate. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history_lesson/2001/11/lincolns_crackdown.html Azmy, B. (2009). Boumediene v. bush and the new common law of habeas. Rochester, Rochester: Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/189874026?accountid=32521
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Part A: The case describes the activities of a hypothetical roadside assistance organisation that is considering the relocation of its call centre from an existing base in the West Midlands of England to a location in Mumbai in western India. Time Every activity of this project includes the time about how long the activity will be taking place. For example, the business plan is expected to take four working weeks, the presentation meeting is expected to be completed in one day and so on. Therefore, time is one of the considerations which might be taken into account in deciding this project. Cusworth and Franks (2007) said the actual progress has to match or beat planned progress. The activities of the project must be finished before or on the planned time. The time management is beneficial to the project for deciding what should be done and not done. The most important function of the time management is regarding the planning as a reminder and guideline (Time Management, n.d.). Regarding the time as a neutral resource can help the project managers to grasp the present rather than lose the past or the future. The managers should make account of time to achieve the goals. For the analysis which might take place as part of the decision there will be some uncertainty risks. As for the time in this case, there might be different kinds of risks. Cusworth and Franks (2007) consider that the common risk to projects is failure to start work on time. For example, if the negotiation in this case has communication problems or the suggestions between the overseas group and the potential vendors in Mumbai cannot reach an agreement. Consequently, It maybe lasts for more than two weeks which can lead to the delays. The factors can place the... ...tivity 5 about Ã¯ ¿ ¡150 per day and it could be crashed by 5 days. Firstly, the original number of working days required to complete the project is from 148days to 147days, the cost should be increased Ã¯ ¿ ¡150 in one day and add the cost of activity 1 about Ã¯ ¿ ¡100 which totally about Ã¯ ¿ ¡250. Then the critical path also hold the line as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21. Secondly, the days will be reduced sequentially from 147days to 146 days. Then the cost will be rise to Ã¯ ¿ ¡400 (Ã¯ ¿ ¡150 + Ã¯ ¿ ¡150 +Ã¯ ¿ ¡100). The critical path keep the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21. If we continue to reduce the number of working days from 147days to 146days, therefore, the cost will be reached at Ã¯ ¿ ¡550 which exceeds Ã¯ ¿ ¡500. Finally, the crashed days can be decided by three days and the cost is Ã¯ ¿ ¡400. According to the analysis, the critical path always keep the same.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
States all over the universe are interested in utilizing different types of renewable energy systems in order to run into the turning demand of energy. Indiana State has a broad assortment of renewable energy resources.A Enormous attempts have been spent in the State of Indiana to better the people awareness toward the usage of such resources as air current, solar and biomass.A Solar energy has great possible to profit Indiana occupant. The Sun visible radiation can be converted into electricity by utilizing solar energy systems such as Photovoltaic systems. Photovoltaic systems ( PV systems ) are renewable energy systems that use the Sun as a beginning for bring forthing electric energy. Implementing PV systems can assist Indiana occupant to bring forth their ain electricity without noise or air pollution. These systems can besides diversify energy supply, cut down the sum of imported fuels, better the quality of the air, countervail nursery gas emanations, and make occupations in t he fabrication and installing of solar energy systems. These alone advantages and features made solar systems the ultimate energy beginning for the twenty-first century. The Indiana Office of Energy Development has offered a figure of inducements that help cut down the costs of put ining and implementing PV systems, and do these systems more low-cost for Indiana occupant. A PV system is a significant investing, and as with any investing, adept aid and careful planning will assist people make the correct determinations. However, the determination of purchasing PV systems depends on several different factors. Peoples want to salvage the finite dodo fuel resources and extinguish the air pollution. Others would instead pass their money on an energy-producing betterment to their belongings than to direct their money to a public-service corporation. Some people like to cut down the sum of electricity that they buy from public-service corporation company, because they will non be affected by any hereafter additions for the electricity monetary value. Finally, some people merely do non like paying public-service corporation measures and appreciate the independency that is provided by a PV system.Statement of the ProblemIn order to measure the fiscal feasibleness of typical residential PV systems in the province of Indiana, information for the counties of Indi ana State should be collected, evaluated, and analyzed through mathematical theoretical accounts and expressions. Besides, information about monetary values and the size of a typical system should be collected from the professionals and representatives who work in the PV industry.Statement of the Hypotheses and Research QuestionsThe void hypothesis of the survey is that the determination of put ining a typical PV system for residential intent at Indiana State is non effectual from the economical point position and the monthly disbursals will be more than the expected return of the system. The alternate hypothesis is that the determination of put ining a typical PV system for residential intent at Indiana State is an effectual from the economical point position and the monthly disbursals will be less than the expected return of the system. There are four grounds for the alternate hypothesis: First, the authorities attempts toward developing and put ining renewable energy made the pro cedure of put ining PV system an easy pattern and there are many professionals who are able to put in this engineering in about all the metropoliss around the U.S. Second, the fiscal inducements that are created by the US authorities helped Indiana occupant financially to put in the PV systems. The 3rd point is that the cost of the natural stuff is traveling down because of the advanced engineerings that being used in the renewable energy. The last point is that the high degree of Indiana Ã¢â¬Ës occupant Ã¢â¬Ës consciousness toward the advantages of the sustainable applications and systems such as the PV system will assist them utilize these systems in proper manner. The consequences of the survey will reply the undermentioned inquiries: What is the perfect size of PV system that is suited for a typical single-family place in Indiana? How much does the standard size of PV system cost? How much electricity will the PV system green goods? How much will the PV system cut down the electricity measure? How long it will take to alter the hard currency flow from negative to positive or how long the householder can wait before the standard size of PV system produce positive hard currency flow? What is the payback period for the standard size of PV system? What is the internal rate of return for the standard size PV system?Statement of the Purpose and NeedThe chief end of the survey is to make consciousness about the economic feasibleness of constructing a residential PV system at the State of Indiana, while sing its public presentation over the life of the system. The consequences of the survey will assist the determination shapers at the State of Indiana and the occupant of Indian buttocks the locations of their metropoliss for possible installing for a solar PV system, gauge the cost of a standard size of PV system, calculate the expected economy, know the payback period, and mensurate the impact of the geographical location of the PV system public presentation. Besides, this survey will be a usher that improves the consciousness for Indiana occupants sing utilizing the solar energy systems. Furthermore, it will assist the determination shapers at Indian State to place the existent demands for developing more effectual schemes and f iscal inducements that help Indiana occupants implement solar systems in their places. The aims of the survey are: To understand the energy ingestion and cost benefits of utilizing a typical PV system. To gauge the profile of the end product power of a typical PV system. To measure the fiscal feasibleness of a typical PV system of the counties those are located in the State of Indiana. To find the factors that should be considered to find the economic final payment of solar including rates, systems public presentation, and inducements. To find countries with high solar potency utilizing the NEREL US section of energy application. To utilize the U.S. section of energy recommendations and methodological analysiss as a usher to develop a theoretical account for constructing a typical PV system. To find the suited size for residential photovoltaic systems for counties of Indiana State. To gauge the environmental benefits of utilizing photovoltaic rural electrification. To find a suited country for constructing a commercial PV system in Indiana.Statement of the PremisesThere are two of import premises for the survey: First, the edifice incorporate photovoltaic is connected in analogue to the public-service corporation grid, so there is no cost for batteries or electrical storage. The 2nd premise is that the computations are based on NEREL US section of energy application and for a typical single-family place in Indiana.Statement of the MethodologyThe methodological analysis of this research will dwell of the undermentioned six stairss: foremost, choosing the counties that will be the sample size. The sample size will be selected harmonizing to the undermentioned process: The counties of Indiana will be organized harmonizing to the locations of the county, there are five regional could be used for forming the counties: North, E, West, cardinal, south cardinal, and south. Then, the alphabetical sorting will be used to form the counties in lists and ea ch list represents a geographical country. Then choosing three counties from each list: one from the beginning of the list, one from the center of the list, and one from the terminal of the list. The 2nd measure is happening the nothing codifications for each county by utilizing the nothing codification finders. After that, the geographical location for each nothing codification will be identified by utilizing the Google Earth application, which will assist in happening two of import variables: solar AZ solar height. The 4th measure is reaching professionals who work in the PV industry and place of import information about a typical PV system such as the size, monetary value, care, and equipment. Fifth, the location and the size parametric quantities will be used as inputs for the PV Watt application. This application will give the expected public presentation and electricity that could be produced from the typical size of a PV system. Finally, the informations that gained from the PV Watt applications and other will be inserted into the excel application to make the analysis. Charts will be created to sum up the consequences of the survey.Definitions of the Key FootingsManagement: Management is the act of forming people to accomplish certain ends. Henri Fayol, who developed a theory of Management Science, believes that the most of import activities of direction are calculating, planning, forming, commanding, organizing and commanding ( Fayol, 1917 ) . Technology: The International Network for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises or INSME defined engineering as Ã¢â¬Å" a human invention in action that involves the coevals of cognition and processes to develop systems that solve jobs and widen human capablenesss Ã¢â¬ ( 2003 ) . In other words, engineering is any procedure that can better the human cognition and be used to work out jobs by doing life easier. Technology Management: it is the scientific discipline that focuses on puting technological tools in pull offing aids to actuate inventions. Renewable energy: Renewable energy is energy which can be produced by utilizing natural resources such as sunshine, air current, rain, waterfalls, rivers, and geothermic heat. PV cell: It is a solar cell that absorbs the Sun visible radiation. It is the most of import portion in a PV system. Each cell consists of at least two beds of semiconducting material stuff ; one bed has a negative charge and the other positive. PV panel: It is a solar panel consists of sets of PV cells that are connected together. It is besides known as PV solar faculty. PV array: PV array is portion of PV solar system. It is a solar array that consists of sets of PV panels or faculties that are connected together in series or in parallel. PV system: A solar system designed to absorb the Sun visible radiation and change over it to electricity. It consists of sets of PV arrays or faculties, which connected to other equipment such as electric inverter or raking systems. The PV system maps as a individual electricity bring forthing unit. Solar Azimuth: The section of energy defined the solar AZ as Ã¢â¬Å" the angle between the Sun Ã¢â¬Ës evident place in the sky and true South, as measured on a horizontal plane Ã¢â¬ . Solar Altitude: The section of energy defined the solar height as Ã¢â¬Å" the angle between to the skyline and the centre of the solar phonograph record. Ã¢â¬ The American Meteorological Society defined this construct as Ã¢â¬ The angle of the Sun 90 grades or less above the skyline. Ã¢â¬ Internal Rate of Return ( IRR ) : It is the rate that is used in capital budgeting to mensurate the viability and profitableness of a undertaking. It will assist determination shapers make the right determination toward specific concern undertaking. Payback period: it is the period that is required to return back the money that is invested as portion capital to get down a concern undertaking. It assists directors and determination shapers to do the right determinations toward puting their money in a concern undertaking. Cash flow: it is an of import construct in the technology economic sciences scientific discipline, it is the procedure of placing the money motion in or out of a concern undertaking. Indiana State: it is a U.S province located in the Midwest part. The population of the province is 6,516,922. Harmonizing to Rural Policy Research Institute, there are 77.7 % of Indiana occupants populating in metropolitan counties, 16.5 % life in micropolitan counties and 5.9 % life in non-core counties.Chapter Two: A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATUREOverviewThis chapter aims to reexamine and clear up some of import constructs sing the renewable energy and the solar PV systems. This chapter besides provides a theoretical footing for the research and helps the reader to find the nature of the research. In add-on, this chapter will supply in deepness reappraisal for old research surveies that are related to fiscal ratings for PV systems at different locations in the universe.Renewable Energy:Renewable energy is energy which can be produced by utilizing natural resources such as sunshine, air current, rain, waterfalls, rivers, and geothermic heat. The resources for the renewable energy are continually and sustainably replenished and those resources are available all over the universe but there is a demand for engineerings to utilize these resources efficaciously. The function for any engineering in this filed is to capture the renewable energy and change over it from specific signifier of power to another. For illustration, the Sun can be used to bring forth solar energy, which will be used for warming, chilling, and illuming. Wind energy is captured by air current turbines and turned into electricity. Harmonizing to the Natural Resources Defense Council ( NRDC ) , there are five chief resources for renewable energy: Wind energy: the power that is generated from the air current. Solar energy: the power that is generated from the Sun. Biomass energy: the power that is generated from Plant stuffs, such as wood, maize, and soy. Biogas energy: the power that is generated from the carnal waste. Geothermal energy: the power that is generated from the reservoirs of steam and hot H2O beneath the Earth Ã¢â¬Ës surface. The undermentioned map is the renewable energy map, which shows the bing installations for the renewable energy in the United States. Using renewable energy is of import because it has many benefits and advantages. These benefits can be summarized by four of import points: Environment Friendly: the renewable power is a clean beginning of energy that has no impact on the environment comparing to other energy resources. Sustainability: the renewable power is continually and sustainably replenished. It will non run out but other beginnings of energy are finite and someday will be consumed. Energy Security: utilizing the renewable energy beginnings will cut down the demand for importing oil from other states and it will increase the autonomy in energy production of a state. Making occupations: occupations will be created by puting money in constructing renewable energy engineering which will assist states in salvaging money that could be used in making occupation alternatively of directing it abroad to purchase fuel.Photovoltaic ( PV ) systemsThe word photovoltaic consists of two words Ã¢â¬Å" exposure Ã¢â¬ , which is a Grecian word means light and Ã¢â¬Å" Gur Ã¢â¬ , which refers to bring forth electricity. The PV systems are systems use solar panels to absorb the sunshine energy and change over it to electricity. These systems give the chance for people to bring forth electricity in clean, quiet and dependable manner. It besides named as solar cells systems because it uses sun visible radiation as the beginning for bring forthing electricity. The undermentioned image is one illustration for the PV system.PV system ComponentThere are two of import constituents for any PV system, these constituents are: PV panels ( faculties ) and AC/DC power conve rtor or inverter. A PV system may include other constituent such as battery, solar tracker, interconnectedness wiring, and a racking system that holds the solar panels. PV panel consist of set PV cells, which consists of at least two beds of semiconducting material stuff. One bed has a negative charge and the other positive. A group of connected solar panels or faculties is called a solar array. The inverter is an electrical power convertor that changes direct current ( DC ) the beginning to jumping current ( AC ) the finish. The DC is the solar panel in a PV system. The undermentioned image explains the difference between cell, faculty, and array parts of a PV system. The undermentioned image summarizes the most of import constituents for a PV system.The manner a PV system plantsThe undermentioned four stairss explain the manner that a PV system works: When the Sun visible radiation strikes the PV cell, the photons of the Sun visible radiation are absorbed by the atoms of the semiconducting material stuff. Chemical reactions release negatrons because negatrons negatively charged. The chemical reaction will bring forth electricity because the free negatrons will travel from the cell Ã¢â¬Ës negative bed to an external circuit and back to the positive bed. This flow of negatrons green goodss electric current. The inverter will reassign the DC electric that is produced by the PV cells to AC that is traveling to be consumed by family demands. More electricity can be produced by increasing the figure of PV cells and panels that are connected to the PV system. When two panels are connected together in series, the electromotive force is maximized to the doubled while the current electric corsets constant. When two panels are connected in analogue, the current electric is maximized to the doubled but the electromotive force stays changeless. The undermentioned diagram explains procedure of bring forthing electricity from a PV system.The types of PV systems:PV systems can be classified depending on several factors. These factors may include: the systems application, operational demands, component constellations, and the manner that equipment is connected to power beginnings and electrical tonss. There are two chief types of solar PV systems: standalone off-grid and grid-connected or grid-tied solar PV systems. The undermentioned account for each type: Stand-alone off-grid PV system: this system is designed to work independently and non connected to electricity grid. This system needs battery bank to hive away the electricity, which is produced by the PV system. This system is largely being used in countries that the electricity grid is far off. The undermentioned figure demonstrates the off-grid PV system. Grid-connected PV systems: this system designed to work in analogue with the electricity grid. This is the most cost effectual type because it does non required battery bank. The lone disadvantage for this type is that this system does non supply backup power during a power outage even if the Sun is reflecting but for sites with dependable grid power, this is normally the logical system pick. Since there is no battery bank, the electric public-service corporation shops the electricity that is produced by the PV system through a system called net-metering. The end of put ining this system is to cut down or extinguish the sum of electricity and power that a occupant would devour from the electric public-service corporation grid. If the system produces electricity more than the family needs, the excess sum of the electricity will be pushed back to the public-service corporation grid and the electric public-service corporation will pay the retail rate to the system proprietor. This type of PV systems will be used in this survey because it Ã¢â¬Ës cost effectual. The undermentioned chart shows the grid-connected PV systems.Previous surveies sing put ining PV systemsIndiana State:It is province located at the United States of America located in the Midwest part of North America. The capital and the largest metropolis in the province is Indianapolis. The occupants of Indiana are called Hoosiers. The name of province means the Indian land. The entire country in Indiana State is 36,418 square stat mis. Harmonizing to National Atlas of the United States ( NAUS ) , Indiana is the 38th largest size in the U.S. The province has a maximal E to west dimension of 145 stat mis and a maximal dimension North to South of 250 stat mis. Michigan State is located on the northern boundary lines of the province, Ohio State located on the E, and Illinois State is located on the west boundary line of the State. The State of Indiana has a humid conditions, with cool winters and warm summ ers. Indiana is divided into 92 counties. As of 2010, there are 16 metropolitan, 25 micropolitan, 117 integrated metropoliss, and 450 towns. Indianapolis is largest metropolis and it is the capital of the State. The metropoliss with populations larger than 55,000 are: Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Evansville, South Bend, Carmel, Bloomington, A Hammond, Gary, Fishers, Muncie, Lafayette, Terre Haute, Anderson. As of July 1, 2011, the population of Indiana is 6,516,922. The power production at Indiana State chiefly produced via coal. There are 24 coal power workss in the province, including the Gibson Generating Station, which is the largest coal power works in the United States. Indiana State ranked the highest rate of S dioxide emanations in the United States because of the coal power works that are located in the province. The determination shapers in Indiana State have made valuable attempts to increasing the usage of renewable energy such as air current, solar power, hydroelectric, or biomass, nevertheless, the advancement has been really slow because of the immense sum of the coal resource in Southern Indiana.Engineering economic sciences:It is a subset of the economic scientific discipline focal points on the viability of technology applications and applications. An of import construct in technology economic sciences is the clip value of money. There are assorted constructs of technology economic sciences will be used in this survey. The most of import is the hard currency flow construct, which is the money motion in or out of a undertaking. The hard currency flow will assist an proprietor of a concern identify the old ages that are needed to return the portion capital of the undertaking. Another of import construct will be used in this survey is the net present value construct, which is the value of a payment or series of payments made at other times.Renewable Energy Incentives:Renewable energy inducements are authorities plans that are created to supply fiscal motives for U.S occupants to develop and put in engineerings and undertakings for bring forthing and bring forthing renewable energy. These plans are of import for the U.S occupant because it facilitates the procedure of put ining a PV system by cut downing the disbursals of purchasing it. The State of Indiana offers a province belongings revenue enhancement tax write-off and a revenue enhancement tax write-off of up to $ 1000 for the installing of solar engineerings.Chapter THREE: Method OF INVESTIGATIONOverviewIn order to measure the fiscal feasibleness of typical residential PV systems in the province of Indiana, information for the 92 counties of Indiana State should be collected, evaluated, and analyzed through mathematical theoretical accounts and expressions. Arrested development theoretical accounts ( e.g. add itive and multiple ) will be used to develop a mathematical theoretical account to measure the cost-effectiveness of typical PV systems. This chapter defines and explains the processs employed, and specifies the lower limit demands that the survey must run into. Besides, in this chapter, there will be a description of the designing tools that were used in the survey.Description of the ProceduresCombinations of assorted informations aggregation methodological analysiss will be used in this survey, reexamining old surveies, questioning people from the PV industry, and recovering informations from the U.S. energy section web site. The information will be collected and analyzed through different applications such as SPSS, PV Calculator, and Microsoft Excel. Reviewing the old surveies will assist the research worker to understand the inside informations about PV engineerings and the best posing for put ining a typical PV system. The literature reappraisal methodological analysis helps the research worker in developing assorted inquiries that used in the interview procedure. The interview procedure will be conducted in three signifiers: face-to-face, over the phone, over the Internet. The interview helps the research worker gather informations from people work in the PV sector. It besides helps the research worker to be familiar with the different types of the PV systems and the monetary values for put ining a typical size of a PV system that is suited for typical individual household place in State of Indiana. The research worker will present himself, his background, and the research ends to the participant. After roll uping informations, the analysis procedure will get down. The different methods and applications will be used in the analysis of the collected information. Finally, the consequences of the analysis will assist the research worker in replying the survey inquiries.Description of Subjects and EquipmentsThe success of this survey depends on assorted tools and applications: Interview, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) plan, Microsoft Excel, PV Watt application, Zip Code Finder, and Google Map. The followers is a description for each of these: Interview: the research worker will carry on interviews with people work in the PV industry. The interviews will assist the research worker collect information about the monetary values of a typical PV system. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) plan: it is a computing machine plan built for statistical analysis intents. SPSS package helps research workers analyzing current state of affairss for specific state of affairss and calculating future tendencies. Besides, it is a tool used by directors to do right determinations about their merchandises and build assorted relationships between different factors. By utilizing this package, houses are able to direct and automatize determinations to run into concern ends and achieve mensurable competitory advantage. This package was helpful for this survey because it will be easy to analyse the information that will be collected from different beginnings and happen relationships between different variables. This application will enable the research worker to sum up the consequences and convert the consequences to artworks which will ease reading the consequences. Excel package or dispersed sheet: This is an application that developed by the Microsoft company. This application is used for computations, making in writing, programing, making statistical operationsaÃâ Ã ¦ etc. This tool is of import for this research because it will be used for ciphering of import constructs such as hard currency flow, net nowadays value, and internal rate of return. PV Watt application: it is an application developed by the U.S section of energy to Ã¢â¬Å" find the energy production and cost nest eggs of grid-connected photovoltaic ( PV ) energy systems throughout the universe. It allows householders, installers, makers, and research workers to easy develop estimations of the public presentation of conjectural PV installings Ã¢â¬ . This is the most of import application for this survey because it will be used to gauge the electricity that could be produced by a typical PV system. This application needs some parametric quantities, which will be identified through interviewing or bespeaking an on-line quotation mark from professional people who work in the PV industry. Google Map: it is an application developed by Google Company. It offers geographical information about topographic points locations. This application is of import to the survey because it will be used to place of import two variables: solar AZ and solar height. These variables will be used in the PV Watt application to gauge the power that could be produced through a typical size of a PV system. Zip codification finder: it is a general web application offered by many web sites to place the nothing codification of a specific country. This application will be used in the survey to place the nothing codifications for the counties of Indiana State.Research Design and ProceduresThe survey processs depend on the applications and the tools that described above. All of these applications are of import for finishing the survey and each one will be used to finish specific occupation. First, the counties of Indiana have been found though the Indiana authorities web site ( IN.gov ) . The following tabular array and figure sum up these counties. NorthA EastA WestA CentralA South Central SouthA Elkhart, Adams, Benton, Boone, Bartholomew, Clark, Fulton, Allen, Carroll, Clay, Hamilton, Brown, Crawford, Jasper, Blackford, Clinton, Hancock, Davy, Dubois, Kosciusko, Cass, De Fountain, Hendricks, Dearborn, Floyd, La Grange, Kalb, Montgomery, Johnson, Decatur, Gibson, Lake, Delaware, Newton, Marion, Franklin, Harrison, LaPorte, Fayette, Owen, Parke, Morgan, Greene, Orange, Marshall, Grant, Henry, Putnam, Shelby Jackson, Perry, Pike, Porter, Howard, Sullivan, Jefferson, Posey, Scott, Pulaski, St. Huntington, Tippecanoe, Jennings, Spencer, Joseph, Jay, Madison, Vermillion, Knox, Vanderburgh, Starke, Steuben Miami, Noble, Vigo, Warren, White Lawrence, Martin, Warrick, Washington Randolph, Monroe, Rush, Tipton, Ohio, Ripley, Union, Switzerland Wabash, Wayne, Wells, Whitley Second, the research worker will choose three counties form each geographical country to be the sample for this survey: one from the beginning of the list, one from the center of the list, and one from the terminal of the list. The selected northern counties are: Elkhart, Marshall, and Steuben. The selected Eastern counties are: Adams, Huntington and Whitley. The selected Western counties are: Benton, Owen and White. The selected Central counties are: Boone, Hendricks, and Shelby. The selected Southern Central counties are: Bartholomew, Jackson and Switzerland. Finally, the selected Southern counties are: Clark, Orange and Washington. The 3rd measure is happening the nothing codifications for each one of the selected counties. This has been done through the Zip codification Finder application. The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected northern counties.ZIP Codes functioning the county ofELKHART, IndianaMap of CountyZIP CodeCity46507 Bristol 46514 ELKHART 46515 ELKHART 46516 ELKHART 46517 ELKHART 46526 GOSHEN 46527 GOSHEN 46528 GOSHEN 46530 Farmer 46540 MIDDLEBURY 46542 MILFORD 46543 MILLERSBURG 46550 NAPPANEE 46553 NEW PARIS 46561 OSCEOLA 46567 Syracuse 46573 WAKARUSAZIP Codes functioning the county ofMARSHALL, IndianaZIP CodeCity46501 Argos 46504 Bourbon 46506 Bremen 46511 CULVER 46513 DONALDSON 46524 ETNA GREEN 46531 GROVERTOWN 46536 LAKEVILLE 46537 LAPAZ 46539 MENTONE 46550 NAPPANEE 46563 Plymouth 46570 TIPPECANOE 46572 TYNER 46574 WALKERTONZIP Codes functioning the county ofSTEUBEN, IndianaZIP CodeCity46703 Angola 46705 ASHLEY 46737 Fremont 46742 Hamilton 46747 Hudson 46761 LAGRANGE 46776 ORLAND 46779 PLEASANT LAKE The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected Eastern counties:ZIP Codes functioning the county ofADAMS, IndianaZIP CodeCity46711 Bern 46714 BLUFFTON 46731 CRAIGVILLE 46733 Decatur 46740 Geneva 46745 Hoagland 46769 LINN GROVE 46772 Monroe 46773 MONROEVILLE 46777 OSSIAN 46780 PLEASANT MILLS 46782 PREBLE 47326 BRYANTZIP Codes functioning the county ofHUNTINGTON, IndianaZIP CodeCity46702 Andrews 46713 BIPPUS 46750 Huntington 46770 MARKLE 46783 Roanoke 46792 Warren 46940 LA FONTAINE 46991 VAN BURENZIP Codes functioning the county ofWHITLEY, IndianaZIP CodeCity46562 PIERCETON 46723 CHURUBUSCO 46725 COLUMBIA CITY 46764 LARWILL 46783 Roanoke 46787 SOUTH WHITLEY The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected Western counties:ZIP Codes functioning the county ofBENTON, IndianaMap of CountyZIP CodeCity47917 AMBIA 47921 Boswell 47942 EARL PARK 47944 Fowler 47948 GOODLAND 47970 OTTERBEIN 47971 Oxford 47975 PINE VILLAGE 47977 REMINGTON 47984 Talbot 47986 TEMPLETONZIP Codes functioning the county ofOWEN, IndianaZIP CodeCity46120 CLOVERDALE 46166 Paragon 47427 COAL CITY 47431 Freedom 47433 GOSPORT 47455 PATRICKSBURG 47456 Quincy 47459 SOLSBERRY 47460 Spencer 47471 WORTHINGTON 47833 Bowling GREEN 47868 PolandZIP Codes functioning the county ofWHITE, IndianaMap of CountyZIP CodeCity46978 ROYAL CENTER 46985 STAR CITY 47920 BATTLE GROUND 47923 BROOKSTON 47925 American bison 47926 BURNETTSVILLE 47929 CHALMERS 47950 IDAVILLE 47959 MONON 47960 MONTICELLO 47980 Reynolds 47995 WOLCOTT The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected Central counties:ZIP Codes functioning the county ofBOONE, IndianaMap of CountyZIP CodeCity46035 COLFAX 46050 KIRKLIN 46052 LEBANON 46069 Sheridan 46071 THORNTOWN 46075 WHITESTOWN 46077 ZIONSVILLE 46102 Progress 46147 Jamestown 47968 NEW ROSSZIP Codes functioning the county ofHENDRICKS, IndianaZIP CodeCity46103 AMO 46112 BROWNSBURG 46113 CAMBY 46118 CLAYTON 46121 COATESVILLE 46122 DANVILLE 46123 Avon 46147 Jamestown 46149 LIZTON 46158 MOORESVILLE 46165 NORTH SALEM 46167 PITTSBORO 46168 PLAINFIELD 46180 STILESVILLE 46197 PLAINFIELD 46231 Indianapolis 46234 Indianapolis 47968 NEW ROSSZIP Codes functioning the county ofSHELBY, IndianaZIP CodeCity46110 BOGGSTOWN 46124 Edinburgh 46126 FAIRLAND 46130 FOUNTAINTOWN 46144 GWYNNEVILLE 46150 Manila 46161 Morristown 46162 NEEDHAM 46163 NEW PALESTINE 46176 SHELBYVILLE 46182 WALDRON 46259 Indianapolis 47234 FLAT ROCK 47272 Saint Paul The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected Southern Central counties:ZIP Codes functioning the county ofBARTHOLOMEW, IndianaZIP CodeCity46124 Edinburgh 47201-47203 Columbus 47226 CLIFFORD 47232 ELIZABETHTOWN 47234 FLAT ROCK 47236 GRAMMER 47244 HARTSVILLE 47246 Hope 47247 JONESVILLE 47274 Seymour 47280 TAYLORSVILLE 47283 WESTPORTZIP Codes functioning the county ofJACKSON, IndianaZIP CodeCity47102 Austin 47220 BROWNSTOWN 47228 Cortland 47229 CROTHERSVILLE 47235 Freetown 47249 KURTZ 47260 MEDORA 47264 Norman 47274 Seymour 47281 VALLONIAZIP Codes functioning the county ofSWITZERLAND, IndianaZIP CodeCity47011 Bennington 47019 EAST ENTERPRISE 47020 Firenze 47038 Patriot 47043 VEVAY The undermentioned three tabular arraies summarize the nothing codifications for the selected Southern counties:ZIP Codes functioning the county ofCLARK, IndianaZIP CodeCity47104 Bethlehem 47106 BORDEN 47111 Charlestown 47119 FLOYDS KNOBS 47126 HENRYVILLE 47129 CLARKSVILLE 47130 JEFFERSONVILLE 47131 JEFFERSONVILLE 47132 JEFFERSONVILLE 47133 JEFFERSONVILLE 47134 JEFFERSONVILLE 47141 MARYSVILLE 47143 Memphis 47144 JEFFERSONVILLE 47147 NABB 47162 NEW WASHINGTON 47163 OTISCO 47172 SELLERSBURG 47177 Underbrush 47190 JEFFERSONVILLE 47199 JEFFERSONVILLEZIP Codes functioning the county ofORANGE, IndianaZIP CodeCity47108 CAMPBELLSBURG 47118 English 47125 HARDINSBURG 47140 Marengo 47175 TASWELL 47432 FRENCH LICK 47452 Orleans 47454 PAOLI 47469 WEST BADEN SPRINGSZIP Codes functioning the county ofWASHINGTON, IndianaZIP CodeCity47106 BORDEN 47108 CAMPBELLSBURG 47120 Fredericksburg 47125 HARDINSBURG 47126 HENRYVILLE 47145 MILLTOWN 47164 Palmyra 47165 PEKIN 47167 Salem 47170 SCOTTSBURG 47281 VALLONIA The following measure is utilizing the Google Map will assist the research worker in happening the exact geographical place for each nothing codification. By happening the exact location for each county, the research worker will be able to happen solar power potency for each country. The 5th measure in the research methodological analysis is utilizing the PV Watt application, which is lunched by the section of energy, with the parametric quantities, which will be gotten from questioning the people who work in the PV industry. The parametric quantities are needed to cipher the expected produced energy from the typical PV system that has been built harmonizing to recommendation from professional people who work in the PV industry. Finally, the Microsoft Excel will be used for making the mathematical computation such as the IRR and NPR. The interview is besides of import for this survey because it will assist the research worker be familiar with the different types of the PV systems and with the monetary values of put ining a typical system for a typical individual household. The names of the makers, distributors, traders and service & A ; fix specializer have been taken from the electronic version of the xanthous book hypertext transfer protocol: //www.yellowpages.com. The research worker usage Ã¢â¬Å" Solar System Ã¢â¬ as a cardinal phrase for the hunt and Indiana has been selected as the location. Then, the consequences have been filtered by choosing three classs: Solar Energy Equipment & A ; Systems-Dealers. Solar Energy Equipment & A ; Systems-Service & A ; Repair. Solar Energy Equipment & A ; Systems-Manufacturers & A ; Distributors The following tabular array summarizes the name, type of concern, location and phone figure.ANameBusiness TypeCityTelephone1 Solar Energy Systems, LLC retail gross revenues, sweeping provider, distributer, electric public-service corporation Nappanee, Indiana USA 46550 ( 574 ) 773-0546 2 Bowen Engineering General Contractor Fishermans, Indiana USA 46038 317-842-2616 3 BPM Service Today Contractor Kendallville, Indiana USA 46755 260-347-9388 4 Concept Beyond Tomorrow retail gross revenues Chesterton, Indiana USA 46304 219-929-1397 5 CoolSpell, LLC. retail gross revenues, sweeping provider Indianapolis, Indiana USA 46220 317-201-4435 6 Earth-SOLAR Technologies Corporation Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturer Indianapolis, Indiana USA 46202 317. 926. 7000 7 EcoSource Inc sweeping provider Columbus, Indiana USA 47201 812-342-7226 8 Estes Design & A ; Manufacturing, Inc. maker Indianapolis, Indiana USA 46229 317-899-2203 9 G-Tech Energy, Inc. retail gross revenues, site survey/assessment Indianapolis, Indiana USA 46220 317-627-3031 10 Green Options retail gross revenues Kokomo, Indiana USA 46902 765-480-4138 11 Greenworks Energy retail gross revenues, sweeping provider, importer, distributer, mfg Yorktown, Indiana USA 47396 877-365-POWER 12 Hoagland Electric Inc. Electrical Contracting, industrial, commercial, controls, forte Wayne, Indiana USA 46818 260-489-5990 13 Home Energy LLC retail gross revenues, contractor, sweeping provider Middlebury, Indiana USA 46540 ( 574 ) 825-4800 14 Hurshtown Alternative Power retail gross revenues, sweeping provider Grabill, Indiana USA 46741-9617 260-438-5250 15 Illiana Power Corporation Solar energy consulting, design & A ; installing Terre Haute, Indiana USA 47802 888-815-8023 16 Inovateus Solar LLC sweeping provider, distributer South Bend, Indiana USA 46637 574-485-1405 17 Mann Plumbing Inc MPI Solar retail gross revenues Bloomington, Indiana USA 47404 812-334-4003 ( 812 ) 327-8476 18 Morton Solar & A ; Wind, LLC Renewable Energy Products and Services Evansville, Indiana USA 47711 812-402-0900 19 Following Generation Resources, LLC retail gross revenues Grabill, Indiana USA 46741 260-437-6490 20 Phoenix Mechanical consulting, design, installing, contractor services Garrett, Indiana USA 46738 260-357-1930 21 Renewable Energy Systems, LLC design, installing, undertaking development services, contractor services Avilla, Indiana USA 46710 260-897-2450 22 Rescuer retail gross revenues, sweeping provider, exporter Indianapolis, Indiana USA 46239 317-465-8496 23 Solar Wind Energy Corporation design, installing, building, site study and appraisal services, contractor services, care and fix services Kendallville, Indiana USA 46755 260-347-8382 24 Southside Attic Solution retail gross revenues Greenwood, Indiana USA 46142 ( 317 ) 847-4546 25 SunRise Solar Inc maker, sweeping provider St. John, Indiana USA 46373 219-306-8163 26 SunWind Power Systems, Inc Solar and wind installing, design, and confer withing Floyds Knobs, Indiana USA 47119A27 Illiana Power Corporation Repeated Solar Energy Contracting Indianapolis & A ; Ft. Wayne & A ; South Bend & A ; Michigan City & A ; Indiana USA 46803 888-815-8023 28 One Planet Solar and Wind Inc. retail gross revenues Terre Haute, Indiana USA 47807 812-235-1380 29 Strong Tower Roofing & A ; Construction Installation, care Springville, IN 47462 ( 812 ) 797-0630 30 Lindley Heating & A ; Cooling Inc. retail gross revenues Pittsboro, IN 46167 ( 317 ) 892-6024 31 Midwest Solar Additions installing, design, and confer withing Hebron, IN 46341 ( 219 ) 996-7214 32 Ameresco Energy Servicess retail gross revenues Indianapolis, IN 46240 ( 317 ) 816-0990 33 480v Solar installing, design, and confer withing Michigan City, IN 46360 ( 219 ) 879-5501 34 PrimeStar Solar Installation, care Indianapolis, IN 46229 ( 317 ) 899-3000 35 J J J Enterprises retail gross revenues Indianapolis, IN 46221 ( 317 ) 856-4744 36 Yager Electric retail gross revenues Fort Wayne, IN 46818 ( 260 ) 710-2707 37 Solar Systems of Indiana installing, design, and confer withing Bloomington, IN 47408 ( 812 ) 336-2785 38 Midwest Wind and Solar LLC installing, design, and confer withing Merrillville, IN 46411 ( 219 ) 714-2488 39 Solar Century of Indiana installing, design, and confer withing Indianapolis, IN 46201 ( 317 ) 546-5071 40 Fair & A ; Square Construction retail gross revenues, Installation Poland, IN 47868 ( 812 ) 821-0526 41 L & A ; S Electric Co Inc retail gross revenues, Installation Hammond, IN 46327 ( 219 ) 932-8504 42 Solar Electric Turbine Co installing, design, and confer withing Westfield, IN 46074 ( 317 ) 985-5685 43 Solar Energy Systems installing services Shipshewana, IN 46565 ( 260 ) 768-7275 44 Solartek Energy installing Jeffersonville, IN 47130 ( 812 ) 282-4601 45 Solar and Wind Wave Installation Indianapolis, IN 46217 ( 317 ) 641-4610 46 BP Solar installing, design, and confer withing Whitening, IN 46394 ( 219 ) 473-2867 47 Solar Tek Energy retail gross revenues Newburgh, IN 47630 ( 812 ) 853-5385 48 ERMCO, Inc. Electrical & A ; Communications Contractors retail gross revenues Indianapolis, IN 46217 ( 317 ) 780-2923 Nine inquiries will be asked for the PV representative. These inquiries divided into four classs: constituent and costs, public presentation, country and size, and care and life-time. The inquiries are: Component and costs: What are the major constituents in a grid connected photovoltaic system? How much does a typical Photovoltaics system cost, and on what footing is monetary value determined? Performance: How is the electrical public presentation of Photovoltaic faculties and arrays typically rated? What is the DC electrical end product of PV cells? How should a PV array be oriented for maximal energy production? ( What are the effects of leaning a PV array at lower or higher angles than the local latitude? ) What energy public presentation can be expected from a grid-connected PV system? The size of the systems How much surface country is required for put ining a PV array? How are grid-connected PV systems sized? Care and life clip What are typical care demands for PV systems? What is the expected life-time for a PV system?
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON SOCIETY December 12th, 2007 At the end of the XVIIIth century, scientists have discovered a way to transmit an image from a point to another. It was the beginning of television. Since then, every household has a television. Over the years, it has revolutionized peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Now, as it has become a spread consumer good, everybody has one television at home, even sometimes, two or more. It has changed peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life because the television is seen as a mean of entertainment. The striking point is that television has become a usual good whereas in the past it was almost considered as an expensive good that not all the families could afford. By watching television, people are easily able to escape from the routine of their everyday life, and to relax. In other words, television is a mean of discovering, exploring, learning, dreaming, and thinking. However, even if it has changed peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life and has a good effect on them, it has many bad effects on them too. In fact, it is also a mean to destroy peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It destroys people life because, in most of the cases, it influences a lot of people. Orson Welles, a famous American screenwriter, film and theatre director, a film producer and an actor in films, and theatres, once said: Ã¢â¬Å"I hate television. I hate it as much as peanuts. But I canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop eating peanutsÃ¢â¬ . This quotation is a way to show to people that television can be compared as a drug that people cannot get rid off. Like drugs, it makes people doing things that, in most cases, they would not have done. Actually, it has a strong power of influencing people in a bad way. It influences the ones who are psychological weak, and people who cannot make the difference between the fiction and the real life. As a result, some people think that violence on television influences people because they are not able, to see what is true and what is false. However, even if it has some bad sides, television is seen as educational and a mean to develop peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Even if books and newspapers are the two most important ways of learning, television had conquest peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s heart and now is trusted by lots of them. Television has many bad sides and bad effects that can be very dangerous for people and the ones who live around them. It destroys peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life in a way, and sometimes pushes them to do things they would not have thought they would have done such as commit crimes. Over the years, television has become a drug for a large amount of people. In fact, they cannot live without it and have to watch it everyday. People became addicted to their everyday shows, and cannot live without watching them. Actually, some people cannot imagine their everyday life without a television. Television has become their most popular hobby. It is, in fact, the most popular one even before sport or going out with some friends. Socialization does not seem anymore to be a priority in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It seems that nowadays, people prefer watching TV rather than doing other things. According to the website www. turnoffyourtv. com, people spend about two hours per day in front of their television set. In this survey, men are pointed out because they spend more time watching television than women. So, they are more addictive than women because they watch television between two and three hours per day. It is all the more outstanding as television has become most popular than other hobbies such as sport that could be more interesting. To show that people are really addicted to television, the Media Awareness Network website says that Ã¢â¬Å"A scientific American article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Television AddictionÃ¢â¬ examined why children and adults may find it hard to turn their TVs off. According to researchers, viewers feel an instant sense of relaxation when they start to watch TVÃ¢â¬âbut that feeling disappears just as quickly when the box is turned off. While people generally feel more energized after playing sports or engaging in hobbies, after watching TV they usually feel depleted of energy. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"this is the irony of TV: people watch a great deal longer than they plan to, even though prolonged viewing is less rewarding. Ã¢â¬ Because of this addiction, people can withdraw into themselves and live apart from the society they are living in. According to another website, children spend twenty five hours per week in front of their television set instead of spending their free time playing with their friends or practicing sports. This behavior should alert their parents because going outside and meeting people are parts of their education. As a result, children should not stay all day long in their house watching television and playing video games. It is not good for their education as well as for their socialization. Moreover, the television has other bad consequences and the first target is children. In addition to what was said previously, television influences the youngest. In fact, children are an easy target for television producer. They are much more easily influenced than adults for example. As a result, they can be influenced by violent movies such as thrillers, and can have a weird and violent behavior after having watching such a movie. Watching a violent show can give children the taste of violence and other related behaviors. As they are innocent, they cannot make the difference between what fiction is and what reality is. They want to do what their superheroes do, no matter what. As a result, watching a violent movie can affect in a bad way the weaker. It can make them thinking about murders and sometimes make them committing crimes. Even a person who comes from a well educated and wealthy family can be touched by it. It does not only affect people with financial and other problems. As a result to this violence on television, on April 19th, 2001, in Columbine High School, Colorado, two teenagers named Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed twelve students and one teacher and then killed themselves. They had guns that they had ordered online and homemade bombs they had made days before the massacre. According to the media, they did that because they were both influenced by television and both influenced by a singer named Marilyn Manson and his music videos. Moreover, as they were the victims of mockeries and were rejected by the others, they decided to killed people to show them that they were not as stupid as they thought. In a way, both killers were influenced by violent movie. They were both full of anger and were ready to kill everybody. In fact, in the cybercollege website, it is said that the more children watch television, the more aggressive they become in the future. Moreover, they would be more likely to repeat what they have seen on television. In addition to that, an article in changingchannels. com says: Ã¢â¬Å"Basically, what these studies indicate is that violent media images tend to make us all just a bit more aggressive and impatient. The effect is more dramatic on children, who mentally process media violence the same way they would actual violence Ã¢â¬â and can be traumatized by exposure to excessively violent scenes. Ã¢â¬ As a shocking fact to prove that, in howtotalktoyourkids. om website in 2001, 75% of boys and 60% of girls said that they hit somebody in the past year because they were angry. Another outstanding fact that could be added is the event that occurred on April 16th, 2007 in the United States of America. Seung-Hui Cho, an American Korean who was a senior at Virginia Tech University, killed thirty three people and killed himself. His motivation to commit murders was because he wanted to kill people. In other words, h e did that just to kill and to have blood on his hands. In fact, this student had psychological problems as doctors said. However, he was not the only one to be blamed. In fact, as he was also part of a generation that spends their time watching violent movies and that is very easily influenced, television should also be blamed. Plus, by watching such movies, kids can think that violence resolves any problems they have to face. As a result, they are willing to practice bullying, to employ swear words and to hit people if they do not have what they want or if they are disappointed of something. They think this is the only way and do not think that talking could be a good solution. Moreover, the ones who watch violent movies could become afraid of the reality. They could, in fact, think that what happens in movies could become true. It can destabilize them. As a result, they can have psychological problems. The university killer had psychological problems, so people can say that he may have watched violent show on television when he was young, and since then he had been traumatized. Then, people should be aware that sometimes wrong information is given on television. As a result, people should remain conscious that information can be amplified to scare people. Most of the time, the weaker cannot see what is wrong and what is true. People should listen to what is said on television; but to confirm what they have learned they should read the newspapers, for example, to expand their knowledge and to have many different points of view to construct their culture. The more information people have about a subject, the more able they are to see what could be true and what could be false. So, while everybody is sitting in front of the screen, many people work Ã¢â¬Å"behindÃ¢â¬ the television set. Who are these people see? Who controls what will be shown and what wonÃ¢â¬â¢t? People do not know anything about what happens backstage, and all these people who are working hard Ã¢â¬Å"behindÃ¢â¬ have a big influence on television viewers. Most of the viewers do not know it, but they work in order to control their mind. Even if they think they can have their own opinion on what they are seeing, television has an important influence on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. If people do not know a part of an information, or if they only have one point of view about the news, they can not be really objectives. In fact, television is absolutely not objective! There are too many possibilities to influence people thanks to television (for politics, or economics managers) than it is a very practical way to introduce some ideas in households and in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Television also influences people in their way of consuming goods. It has, in fact, increased the amount of goods purchased per family. Kids sometimes see some toys on television advertisement and want it because it is brand new. They are always influenced by new products coming out and their parents have to buy the toys they want. Because of television and its commercials, people are willing to buy the same things. So, television is used by brands to promote themselves. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why there is a lot of advertising on television, during movies, between programs. Companies use the fact that many people watch television to set their spots when many people will see it. As a result to that, most of households have felt into a society of mass consumption that increases each year. Finally, television has bad effects of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy development. Researches were made to prove to people that watching television increases peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s obesity. In fact, people like eating junk food and drinking sodas while watching television. Excess of nibbling between main dishes is not good for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s body and increases a lot their weight. A lot of American families cannot spend their television time without eating food. They need at least something to put in their mouth to feed them. However, it does not only touch the American culture. As the Media Awareness Network website shows, almost one in four Canadian children, betweenÃ seven and twelve years old, is obese (researches made by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada). Moreover, watching too much television during the same period of time is not good for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. In fact if people stay focus in the same position and in the dark while watching their favorite show, it will damage their eyes vision. In addition to that, smokers smoke a lot of cigarettes while there are in front of their television set. So, it increases a lot the possibility for them to have a cancer. It also touch peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health because instead of doing sport people do another one which is Ã¢â¬Å"coach potatoÃ¢â¬ . This sport is not a good one for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. As a result, people do not lose ny weight because most of them spend a lot of their free time in front of their television set. However, some people think television is good for everybody because positive points can be seen. In fact, even it influences a lot the weaker; it gives a lot of useful information and is a mean of learning. First, television is a new way of learning. When television firs t arrived, it was a revolution for people because they could get the chance to have news from it by watching the daily news magazine. It gives people information about what happen all around the world. It is a mean to have more information so that people can easily make up their mind. In fact, by reading the newspaper, listening to the radio, and then watching documentary shows or news on television, people can increase a lot their knowledge. Television is also seen as a mean to learn. For example, in schools teachers use a lot television to show to their students some documentaries that could be related to their courses. This is seen as an incentive for students. Thanks to it, they can make direct relationships between what their teachers have taught them and what they have seen on television. As teenagers were born with a television, not as most of the teachers were, the teachers think that using television could interest them more. Laurie Rozakis, a writer, focuses a lot of the good effects television has on people. In fact, in Writing Essentials for the Pre-GED Student, she stresses the fact that television helped her in three different ways. First, it helped her to learn English better, and then, it helped her to learn more about the country she was living in: the United Sates of America. The third way was that television helped her to stay out of trouble. She did not go outside at night because she was watching the shows she liked the most. Then, television is a way to escape from reality. Sometimes, it helps people dreaming about a new world for example. Some movies can help them traveling. For example, the ones who cannot travel would enjoy watching a travel documentary of the country they are dreaming about. Television also gives the Ã¢â¬Å"family modelÃ¢â¬ through shows on television. It is the model everybody dreams about. In addition to that, people who have financial problems or who are in hospital can escape their problems by watching television. Thanks to that, they forget for some hours what they have to endure every day. Television is also a family time. It gathers people around the same thing. The Media Awareness Network website focuses a lot on the fact that television is good for family values. First, it allows people to spend time together. Nowadays, people do not have a lot of time to spend with their family. As they spend many hours at works and in transportations, they do not get the chance to have time with their family, except during week ends. As a result, television watched at fix hours allowed them to gather and to discuss together about important subjects. The more information people have from others, the better it is for them and their general culture. As a result to these discussions, children would learn more from it and would become more open-minded. Moreover, they can have the chance to discuss these subjects in class, and give their own opinion to their class. To conclude, the effects the television has on people are an opened debate since many years and would still be in the future. Even if it has bad repercussions, such as fear of the others, violence, mass consumption, it has also good effects. In a way, television increases peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. It gives them more information about an event, and it gathers people round the same sofas to share ideas, opinions and feelings. As the Media Awareness Network website says Ã¢â¬Å"Parents should also pay close attention to what their children see in the news since studies have shown that kids are more afraid of violence in news coverage than in any other media content. Fear based on real news events increases as children get older and are better able to distinguish fantasy from reality. Ã¢â¬ It has been shown that television is something very important in households, and that many people care a lot about their television and about what is shown. However, people who control television channels know that and they try to influence people. They know that what they will show will be heard by thousands of people and that it will have an important influence on the society, and sometimes on the consumption. So, people should seriously take into consideration that television has both good and bad effects on them. These people should warn the youngest about what is good and what is bad, and what to do with the massive information the television gives them. BIBLIOGRAPHY Rozakis, Laurie. Writing Essentials for the Pre-GED Student. Thomson PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 2003: 182. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Changing Channels Website. http://www. changingchannels. org/effects1. htm. 16 October 2006. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Media Awareness Network website. http://www. media-awareness. ca/. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kill Your Television. http://www. turnoffyourtv. com. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How To Talk To Your Kids website. http://howtotalktoyourkids. com/index_base. html Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medias Literacy Review. 15 October 200 6 http://interact. uoregon. edu/medialit/mlr/readings/articles/front. html
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
6 Important Tips to Consider as an Ice Trucker The driving experts at SmartTrucking.com have some crucial safety tips for aspiring ice road truckers. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a risky, challenging way to work, but it pays more than the average trucking job and has a shorter working season, because the dangerous icy roads can only be kept driveable for two to three months. Trucking loads primarily involve bringing fuel and equipment to mining crews. So if that sounds like a lucrative and worthwhile adventure, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s what you need to know.1. The Pay Can VaryMost ice trucking routes run from Yellowknife, a city in the Northwest Territories of Canada, to the mining sites. The average one-way trip takes one day, and pays about $345 Ã to the driver. So a roundtrip drive, ranging 225 to 250 miles, may take from 2 to 2.5 days to complete, since trucks travel under 20 mph when loaded up and only a little faster coming back. A company truck drive might earn as much as $30,000 Ã in three months, with minimal expenses.2. Most Companies Provide AccommodationsMost companies requiring trips on the ice roads provide accommodation at no charge, as well as food at the mining camps. Trucking companies usually take care of all specialty training during a driverÃ¢â¬â¢s first season. Make a good relationship with your supervisor or dispatch, and there may be full-time positions available elsewhere once the ice roads are closed.3. Canadian Hours of Service of DifferCanadian regulations allow for 15 hours of driving time per day- due to the geography of this part of Canada, it may feel like youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been driving all night since much of the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s work happens in the dark. The hours of service also mandate an 8 hour sleeper break, and split sleeper shifts are allowed (unlike in the U.S.).4. The Qualifications are ToughOne catch for the American driver interested in the ice roads is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier for trucking companies to hire Canadian citizens for the short season. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a seasonal or permanent work permit to be eligible. Generally, these jobs are secured by referral or knowing someone who knows someone- but on the plus side thereÃ¢â¬â¢s frequent turnover (70% from year to year!), so there may still be an opportunity for you out there.5.Ã There are Numerous Safety HazardsHereÃ¢â¬â¢s the nitty-gritty you should be aware of:Average daily temperature is around -37F, but can drop as low as -50 or -60F. These temperatures can damage your truck. They cause steel to become fragile and snap, affecting your rim, frame, and other equipment.White outs, fractures in the ice, and accidents can affect your rate of travel- and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no cell phone reception to help you pass the time by chatting with friends.6. There are Plenty of Opportunities AvailableAccording to SmartTrucking, RLC Robinson is the only true ice road company in the Northern Territories, and they are responsible for building and maintaining the ice roads.RLC Robinson (Now managed by TriWest Capital Partners) 3 50 Old Airport Road, Yellowknife, NWT X1A 3T4 867-873-6271 Fax 867-920-2661These companies hire drivers for ice road trucking and they run year-round:Westcan Bulk Transport (sister company of RLC Robinson)Big Bear Trucking Hay River, NorthWT. CanadaBuyers TransportDicksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Trucking Yellowknife, NorthWT. Canada 867-873-1754Expedite North Yellowknife, NorthWT Canada 867-873-3157Grimshaw Trucking Yellowknife, NorthWT. Canada. 867-873-4548HeronÃ¢â¬â¢s Trucking Fort Smith, NWT 867-872-2582H R Transport Island Valley Oil Ltd (Esso) Norman Wells, NWT 867-587-2587K and D Contracting NWT Canada X0E 0A0 Ã 867-978-2792Land Trans Liard Valley Trucking Fort Liard, NWT Canada 867-770-4432Moore Trucking Yellowknife, NWT. Canada 867-444-6327TLI CHO Landtra Transport Yellowknife, NWT. Canada 867-873-4044
Monday, October 21, 2019
CiudadanÃ a de los Estados Unidos por los abuelos Entre los caminos que existen para adquirir la ciudadanÃ a americana, uno es por derecho de sangre que se deriva a travÃ ©s de los abuelos. Esto aplica al caso de niÃ ±os nacidos fuera de Estados UnidosÃ que son hijos de padre o madre ciudadano americano pero estos no cumplen los requisitos para transmitirles la nacionalidad en el momento del nacimiento. Al mismo tiempo, estos niÃ ±os residen habitualmente en un paÃ s distinto a los Estados Unidos. Por ejemplo, una seÃ ±ora americana vive desde que nace hasta los 24 aÃ ±os en Estados Unidos. Viaja al extranjero y se queda a vivir allÃ , donde forma una familia. Su hijo nacido en el extranjero va a ser americano desde el momento de su nacimiento. Y este niÃ ±o siempre vive en el paÃ s en el que ha nacido, con o sin viajes espordicos a Estados Unidos. Con el paso de los aÃ ±os ese hijoÃ se convierte en adulto y tiene un hijo. Este infante (nieto de ciudadana americana), no es americano por nacimiento, a pesar de ser hijo de un estadounidense. Para estos casos y similares aplica el supuesto que se explica en este artÃ culo a continuaciÃ ³n. Requisitos para adquirir la ciudadana por uno de los abuelos Se deben cumplir TODOS los requisitos siguientes: El niÃ ±o ha de ser menor de 18 aÃ ±os de edad y soltero Tiene que vivir habitualmente fuera de los Estados Unidos y con su padre o madre que es ciudadano, quien debe tener su custodia legal, en solitario o compartida con el otro progenitor. la Ã ºnica excepciÃ ³n es en el caso de que haya fallecido. En este caso el progenitor que sobrevive o el guardin legal deben no oponerse a que el niÃ ±o adquiera la ciudadanÃ a de USA por un abuelo.El padre o la madre del niÃ ±o deben ser ciudadanos americanos. Es indiferente cÃ ³mo adquirieron esa condiciÃ ³n.Ã El abuelo o la abuela tienen que ser ciudadanoÃ en el momento en el que se solicita la ciudadanÃ a para el nieto o nieta. Si ha fallecido, debe probarse que lo era en el momento de su fallecimiento.Adems, debe poder demostrar con documentaciÃ ³n que el abuelo o abuela ha residido en Estados Unidos por un mÃ nimo de cinco aÃ ±os, de los que al menos dos ha tenido que ser despuÃ ©s de haber cumplido los 14. Si ha falle cido, este requisito debe haberse cumplido antes de la fecha de fallecimiento. El tiempo no tiene que ser seguido. Es suficiente sumar el total del periodo que se pide. En el caso de militares, los tiempos de presencia en Estados Unidos se computan de una manera especial. Tramitacin de la solicitud de ciudadana para el nieto En estos casos, los niÃ ±os no adquieren la ciudadanÃ a de forma automtica. Es necesaria realizar una tramitaciÃ ³n que debe completarse en los Estados Unidos. Para ello es necesario que el infante ingrese legalmente al paÃ s. Generalmente lo har con una visa de turista pero puede hacerlo con cualquiera otra. Destacar que los consulados no estn obligados a aprobar visas. Conceden las visas si se cumplen los requisitos especÃ ficos de cada uno de ellas.Ã Una vez en Estados Unidos, el niÃ ±o debe mantener en todo momento presencia legal. Esto es muy importante y tener claro la fecha mxima para permanecer legalmente en el paÃ s.Ã A continuaciÃ ³n debe llenarse la planillaÃ N-600K, que debe ser firmada por el progenitor que es ciudadano americano. Si el progenitor ha fallecido, podr hacerlo el abuelo ciudadano o el progenitor sobreviviente. En este caso tener en cuenta que no pueden haber pasado ms de cinco aÃ ±os a contar desde el dÃ a en que falleciÃ ³ el padre o madre ciudadano. TambiÃ ©n hay que pagar el arancel correspondiente, adjuntar en inglÃ ©s toda la documentaciÃ ³n de apoyo que se pide. Documentos que hay que enviar con la planilla N-600K Todos los documentos en un idioma distinto al inglÃ ©s tienen que ser traducidos y acompaÃ ±ados por un certificado de traducciÃ ³n. Entre los documentos que se necesita adjuntar estn: Certificado de nacimiento del niÃ ±o.Si los padres estn casados, los certificados de matrimonio. Si previamente han estado casados, los certificados de divorcio o de viudedad que puso fin al anterior matrimonio.Ã Si los padres no estn casados y el ciudadano es el padre, documento que acredite la legitimaciÃ ³n del hijo.En los casos de separaciÃ ³n o divorcio, documento que acredite que se tiene la custodia legal sobre el menor.Documento que acredite la ciudadanÃ a del padre o madre y la del abuelo o abuela.Ã Documentos que acrediten que el abuelo o abuela cumple con los requisitos de presencia de cinco aÃ ±os en Estados Unidos o sus territorios de los cuales dos han tenido que ser despuÃ ©s de cumplir los 14 aÃ ±os. El tiempo no tiene que ser continuo. Y si el abuelo o abuela adquirieron la ciudadanÃ a despuÃ ©s de nacer, tambiÃ ©n se puede computar el tiempo transcurrido en Estados Unidos con un estatus diferente al de ciudadano.Ã Documentos que acredite que el inf ante est legalmente en los Estados Unidos, como copia de la visa y del I-94.Ã Evidencia que demuestre cambios legales de nombres y/o apellidos, si los hubiera habido. Tener en cuenta que si previamente se ha enviado al USCIS esta documentaciÃ ³n en relaciÃ ³n a la peticiÃ ³n de una tarjeta de residencia para el hijo por parte de un ciudadano americano, entonces no ser necesario volverla a enviar. Adems, tener presente que para el cÃ ³mputo de presencia se considera Estados Unidos y sus territorios cualquiera de los 50 estados de la UniÃ ³n Americana, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam, Islas VÃ rgenes Americanas y las Islas Marianas del Norte.Ã Qu documentos sirven para acreditar presencia en los Estados Unidos? En realidad, cualquiera que sirva para demostrar este requisito. Los que ms frecuentemente se aceptan son: RÃ ©cords mÃ ©dicos, militares o de escuela.Recibos de pago de hipotecas, alquileres, electricidad, seguros, etc. Contratos de todo tipoPrueba de haber trabajado como el W-2.Pago de impuestos (tax returns) Escrituras de propiedad Declaraciones juradas de miembros de iglesias, sindicatos (union) u otro tipo de organizaciones. Direccin a la que se enva la papelera USCISP.O. Box 20100Phoenix, AZ 85036 O por correo urgente a: USCISAttn: Form N-600K1820 E. Skyharbor Circle SSuite 100Phoenix, AZ 85034 Los militares deben aplicar al centro del USCIS en Lincoln, Nebraska. Entrevista, juramento, ciudadana y pasaporte Es posible que durante la tramitaciÃ ³n de la naturalizaciÃ ³n, el niÃ ±o y su abuelo ciudadano tengan que ir a una oficina del USCIS a una entrevista. Sin embargo, es posible que InmigraciÃ ³n determine que no es necesaria por tener ya toda la documentaciÃ ³n necesaria para probar que el infante es elegible para este derecho.Ã Si el USCIS considera que se cumplen todos los requisitos y se reconoce la ciudadanÃ a al menor, Ã ©ste tendr que prestar el juramento de lealtad a los Estados Unidos (Oath of Allegiance) si ya ha cumplido los 14 aÃ ±os de edad. Si es ms pequeÃ ±o se considera que no tiene capacidad para entenderlo y, por lo tanto, no se pide que cumpla con esta obligaciÃ ³n. Cuando se recibe el Certificado de CiudadanÃ a ya se es ciudadano. A partir de ahÃ ya se puede solicitar un NÃ ºmero del Seguro Social y un pasaporte para el menor. Respecto a esto Ã ºltimo, tener en cuenta las reglas de la presencia de ambos padres. Adems, informarse sobre los documentos que puede utilizar un estadounidense para ingresar y salir del paÃ s y quÃ © tipo de documentaciÃ ³n se pide cuando un menor viaja internacionalmente solo o en compaÃ ±Ã a de solamente uno de los padres. Qu sucede cuando el USCIS no aprueba la peticin Si el gobierno considera que no se reÃ ºnen todos los requisitos enumerados en las leyes, asÃ lo comunicar por carta notificando la razÃ ³n para la negativa. A partir de ahÃ se tiene un plazo de 30 dÃ as para apelar la decisiÃ ³n. Ley que regula este derecho La secciÃ ³n 322 de la Ley de NaturalizaciÃ ³n e InmigraciÃ ³n (INA, siglas en inglÃ ©s) regula los derechos de los niÃ ±os nacidos en el extranjeros que pueden tener derecho a la ciudadanÃ a americana. TambiÃ ©n es fundamental para la adquisiciÃ ³n de la ciudadanÃ a por los abuelos la Ley de CiudadanÃ a para niÃ ±os o Child Citizenship Act (CCA, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s) del aÃ ±o 2000 y que entrÃ ³ en vigor el 27 de febrero de 2001. Hay que tener siempre en cuenta que es frecuente que las leyes sufran reformas con el paso del tiempo, como le ha pasado a la INA en numerosas ocasiones. Por lo tanto, muchas veces conviene informarse no sÃ ³lo de lo que aplica ahora sino tambiÃ ©n de lo que aplicaba en el momento en el que una persona naciÃ ³ y ver si esa situaciÃ ³n, si es beneficiosa, puede todavÃ a reclamar o ya no. Tip Si una persona tiene dudas sobre si es ciudadana americana o no, siempre puede marcar al 1-800-375-5283. TambiÃ ©n se puede escribir un correo electrÃ ³nico a: askpristate.gov. O se puede contratar los servicios de un abogado de inmigraciÃ ³n experto en asuntos de ciudadanÃ a y naturalizaciÃ ³n. A tener en cuenta Este derecho se deriva de abuelo o abuela. Y tambiÃ ©n es indiferente si se trata por el lado materno o el paterno.Ã Asimismo, los niÃ ±os que se pueden beneficiar son tanto los varones como las mujeres. No hay distinciÃ ³n por razÃ ³n de sexo. En el caso de militares, verificar las reglas especiales que aplican para contabilizar el tiempo residido en Estados Unidos. TambiÃ ©n aplican para ellos reglas especiales sobre la presencia fÃ sica del menor en Estados Unidos durante la tramitaciÃ ³n de la naturalizaciÃ ³n. Por Ã ºltimo, si el vÃ nculo entre el progenitor ciudadano y el hijo es por adopciÃ ³n, informarse sobre todos los casos posibles.Ã Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal para ningÃ ºn caso en particular.
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Avoiding Prompt Dependency A serious problem for special educators can be to create prompt dependence. In the effort to teach new skills we can create new barriers to success and independence by creating prompt dependence, where a student is unable to work without the application of prompting. The Continuum of Prompting Prompting lies on a continuum from Most to Least, or Least to Most. Most prompts are those which are the most invasive, the full physical prompt. From a full physical prompt, prompting progresses to partial physical prompts (tapping an elbow) and then through verbal prompting and gestural prompting. Professionals make decisions about how best to employ prompting, usually judging the ability of the student. Some students, who are able to imitate, should probably be taught a new activity by modeling with a minimum of prompting. Prompts are intended to be faded, or removed, so that the child can perform the new skill independently. Thats why verbal is in the middle of the continuum, since they can often be harder to fade than gestural prompts. In fact, all too often prompt dependence begins with constant verbal directions teachers give children. The opposite problem can happen as well, as children get tired of constant verbal nagging from significant adults. Plan Your Prompting If students have receptive language and have a history of responding to verbal directions, you will want to plan a least to most prompting protocol. You want to teach or model the activity, give the spoken directive, and then attempt a gestural prompt, such as pointing. If that does not elicit the response/behavior that you wanted, you would progress to the next level, which would be gestural and verbal, Pick up the ball (while pointing to the ball.) At the same time, your teaching may be part of a forward or backward chain, depending on the skill and the skill level of your student. Whether you forward chain Ã¢â¬â¹or backward chain will depend as well on whether you anticipate that your student will succeed best at the first or last step. If you are teaching a child to make pancakes in an electric skillet, you may want to backward chain, and make removing the pancake from the pan the first step you teach, since the reinforcement (eating the pancake) is close at hand. In the same way, planning your task analysis and chaining strategy to guarantee success is a great way to avoid prompt dependency. Children with poor or not receptive language, who dont respond, will need to be prompted most to least starting with full physical prompting, such as hand over hand prompting. There is greater danger of creating prompt dependency when you start at this level. It would probably be good to vary activities, so the student does tasks he or she has mastered interspersed with activities that they are learning. In this way, they are completing unprompted activities while at the same time working on new skills. Fading Fading is planned withdrawal of prompting in order to avoid prompt dependency. Once you have seen the child provide a decent approximation of the behavior or activity you want, you should start withdrawing the prompt . . . perhaps moving to a partial physical prompt (touching the childs hand, rather than a full physical, hand over hand prompt) or to a verbal prompt, paired with re-modeling the activity. Quickly pulling back from the most invasive prompting as quickly as possible is probably one of the most important strategies in avoiding prompt dependency. It means accepting an approximation and moving on, rather than spending too much tie on a single repeated activity. The key, then, is to: Plan your prompting.Mix mastered skills with new skills,Accept approximations of the behavior and start withdrawing prompting andFade as soon as you can.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Please go on YouTube & watch a 10 minute speech & write a paragraph or two analyzing the speech - Assignment Example Instead of just referring to one American, President began a sentence with the word Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ 12 times. The purpose of this was to stress how important this was for the American people as a whole. After detailed why this mission was so important, President Obama gave a brief outline about how these events transpired. This was done to reassure the American people that this mission was carried out with transparency and with the full knowledge of the president. Another thing that President Obama does is acknowledge the contribution of his Pakistan counterpart. In the conclusion of his speech, President Obama focuses upon the virtues of justice and achievement. Finally, President Obama touches upon spirituality by referring to God three times in his last few sentences. This is intertwined with talk of American and is thus reconfirming that America is on the right
Friday, October 18, 2019
The Current Evidence of Human Evolution (Human Biology ) - Essay Example Unlike in the past, modern humans have created complex communal structures that are composed of many competing and cooperating groups, from individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ families to states. Social communications between humans also have established wide diversity of traditions, values, ethics, laws and social norms which all form human societyÃ¢â¬â¢s basis modern humans have showed a bigger appreciation for aesthetics and beauty which when joint with the wish for self-expression, it has led to modernizations like music, literature and art. Modern humans are largely distinguished for their numerous desires to comprehend and influence the earth in search of answers to of explaining and manipulating normal phenomena through religion, science, mythology and philosophy (Cremo, 2010, p.49). This curiosity is what has enhanced the development of skills and advanced tools; modern humans are the only species that are currently known to clothe themselves, cook their food, build fires, and develop and enhance other numerous technologies (OÃ¢â¬â¢higgin &Cohn, 2000, p.89). This is unlike in the past where species dint use to light fires, eat healthy and nutritious food clothe t hemselves or know how to use any modern tools which shows that human beings have evolved over many years and are still evolving. Modern humans also pass their knowledge and skills to future generations through continuous education. Modern humans are genetically different from early human because of the increased rate of evolution which is as a result of increase growth of human population and their movements into new environments like cities, where most are taken as major subject to emerging natural collection pressures (Cunnanes & Stewart, 2010, p83). Evolution of human is characterized by various essential morphological, behavioral, physiological and developmental changes that have occurred since the split between chimpanzees and the last human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestor. The
Censorship, The First Amendment, and Free Speech - Essay Example Victims of hate speech suffered from emotional, as well as psychological pains, and as a result, various institutions took up action by way of creating hate speech campus codes. These codes were meant to limit speech that was both hateful as well as harmful to people (Garrett 1). However, the courts systematically began striking down the policies in speech, stating how they were unconstitutional. From a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, hate speech is unfair harassment or treatment either verbally or non-verbally directed towards an individual, or group of persons based on their color, race, nationality, religious beliefs, age, and sex, with the sole purpose of creating offensiveness and intimidation for the persons involved. Although there has been a significant increment in the number of hate speech codes within colleges, as well as universities, the increase in hate speech occurrences across the U.S is unbearable. Although hate speech codes endeavor to create a safer environment that is politically correct within college campuses by instituting principles as well as guidelines for students to adhere to, they are somewhat ineffective because they are merely trying to cover up hate speech (Gould 73). Various campuses enforce repressive as well as biased speech codec, and under these codes, all groups of persons of integrity risk persecution from school staff. These speech codes make it punishable for students to talk about or even distribute resources concerning issues that are contrary to dominant beliefs within the campus, of which could be mostly secular as well as politically correct in nature. Nevertheless, there has never been any known case whereby a collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s speech has remained unchanged after a courtroom challenge. The present generation of speech codes tends to come by way of students conduct and email policies that ban invasive communication, statements of diversity that have provisions for