Monday, September 30, 2019
This is a phrase, a philosophy phrase that is about living, daily living. But what do you think it really means or should we say what is the hidden meaning about it? Why just living is not enough? Living is not enough because we need to experience all the things we can. Simple as to explore the world or the things that was given to us by our beloved GOD. We need to experience all good, better and best, bad, worse and worst. From worst to best to know what the word LIFE truly means. It also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean we need to do crimes in order to experience bad things, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just like problems, wounds and etc. We and I consider it as bad things because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like any of that happen to me. Just living is not enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦. We need to explore and find the true meaning of life. He who hesitates is probably right. This is a philosophy that we can use daily, why? Because this is about decision making. And we always make decision in every aspect of our life. As a student I can relate in this because of our recitations in school. We always hesitate before we raise our hands to answer. We will suddenly know that our or my answer is right because someone answers it. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late to get the credit. The philosophy above is trying to teach or to tell us that if we have ideas, share it, tell it, explain it because we will never know if our ideas is right if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t try it. Not only for students but all individuals around the globe. Human life is purely a matter of deciding whatÃ¢â¬â¢s important to you. This Philosophy is saying human life always choose whatÃ¢â¬â¢s important to you. But why? All individuals are different from each other, different tastes, likes, dislikes and many more. But we all have similarities, we always choose whatÃ¢â¬â¢s important to us in every problem that comes in our life. For some instances, family problems like marriage and your family doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want your fiance or fiancee, you will decide whatÃ¢â¬â¢s MORE important to you your family or your love one? If you choose your family, then go and itÃ¢â¬â¢s also the same if you choose your love one. I understand in this philosophy that this our instict that we always choose whatÃ¢â¬â¢s important to us but it never assures us that what is important will be the best for us. Only friends can answer your calls everytime of day that matter. This is a simple philosophy that is about friendship. If we first read it, we will quickly understand what it means. But what do we understand? We all know we have many friends in our life, friends in school, friends in the neighborhood and many more. We also know not all friends are real, just like this saying says Ã¢â¬Å"Some friends are gold and some friends are silverÃ¢â¬ . The philosophy above is trying to tell us that only TRUE and REAL friends can answer your calls no matter what your problem is. The friends that are there for you no matter what. No matter what time of day it is, you could call them and theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be there for you. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s true, they are the ones that matter. The people who you can really rely on to be there for you are the ones that should matter in your life.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Compiled by: Mirza Rohail B http://economicpakistan. wordpress. com/2008/02/10/cng-industry/ Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. Argentina and Brazil are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles. As of 2005, Pakistan is the largest user of CNG in Asia, and third largest in the world. The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) sector of Pakistan by end of 2007 has attracted over Rs 70 billion investments during the last few years as a result of liberal and encouraging policies of the government. Presently, more than 2,700 CNG stations are operating in the country in 85 cities and towns, and 1000 more would be setup in the next three years. It has provided employment to above 30,000 people in Pakistan. Over 2 million vehicles were converted to CNG as of march 2009, showing an increase of 35 percent yearly. On average 29,167 vehicles are being converted to CNG every month. All Pakistan CNG Association (APA) Sana-ur-Rehman confirms that CNG stakeholders have invested Rs. 90 billion in this sector and another Rs 20 billion investment is in pipeline. The CNG consumers had invested around Rs 60 billion in converting their vehicles to CNG. The CNG was replacing at least 6. 12 billion liters of petrol every year and saving foreign exchange to the tune of billions of dollars. The CNG sector pays 24 percent sales tax and 4 percent withholding tax to the government. Moreover, the CNG is contributing tremendously towards maintaining the air pollution level lower since it emits almost 85 percent less harmful gasses, zero lead and zero particulate matter. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. The government of Punjab, Pakistan, the most populous province of that country, has mandated that all public-transport vehicles will use CNG by 2007. CNG conversion 3rd generation environmentally Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, usually cylinders. Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price differential with liquid fuels, locally-produced conversion equipment and a growing CNG-delivery infrastructure. A Ã¢â¬ËBlue-networkÃ¢â¬â¢ of CNG stations is being developed on the major highways of the Southern Cone (including Chile and Bolivia) to allow for long-haul transportation fuelled by CNG. According to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles, Pakistan has the third-largest number of natural gas vehicles. In the Middle East and Africa, Egypt is a top ten country in the world with more than 63000 CNG vehicles and 95 fueling stations nationwide. Egypt was also the first nation in Africa and the Middle East to open a public CNG fuelling station in January 1996. Brisbane Transport and Trans-Perth in Australia have both adopted a policy of only purchasing CNG buses in future; the former purchasing 216 Scania L94UB and 180 MAN 18. 10 models, with the latter purchasing 451 Mercedes-Benz OC500LE buses, including 58 articulated buses. Brisbane Transport has also ordered up to 30 articulated CNG buses on MAN chassisÃ¢â¬â¢. During the 1970s and 1980s, CNG was commonly used in New Zealand in the wake of the oil crises, but fell into decline after petrol prices receded. Technology CNG can easily be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines. Lea n-burn Otto-cycle engines can achieve higher thermal efficiencies when compared with stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines at the expense of higher NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. Electronically-controlled stoichio-metric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output, especially when combined with EGR, turbo charging and inter-cooling, and three way catalytic converters. The octane rating of CNG is far greater than Petrol and if handled correctly it can produce same or more power output from an engine provided the Compressed Natural Gas is compressed properly and accurate amounts of BTU Figures attained. CNG cylinders can be made of steel, aluminum, or plastic. Lightweight composite (fiber-wrapped plastic) cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation steel and aluminum cylinders, which leads to lower fuel consumption. CNG may be refueled from low-pressure or high-pressure systems. The difference lies in the cost of the station vs. the refueling time. There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line during the night, but this is forbidden in some countries. CNG compared to LNG and LPG CNG is often confused with LNG. While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is in compressed form, while LNG is in liquefied form. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive cooling process and cryogenic tanks. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of natural gas and the use of high pressures. CNG is also often confused with LPG, which is a compressed blend of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). The Advantages of Compressed Natural Gas The Environmentally Clean Advantage Compressed natural gas is the cleanest burning fuel operating today. This means less vehicle maintenance and longer engine life. CNG vehicles produce the fewest emissions of any motor fuel. Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) has little or no emissions during fueling. In gasoline vehicles, fueling emissions account for at least 50% of a vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s total hydrocarbon emissions. CNG produces significantly less pollutants than gasoline. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline operated cars release carbon dioxide, which contributes to global warming. This is greatly reduced with natural gas. The Maintenance Advantage Some fleet operators have reduced maintenance costs by as much as 40% by converting their vehicles to CNG. Intervals between tune-ups for natural gas vehicles are extended 30,000 to 50,000 miles. Intervals between oil changes for natural gas vehicles are dramatically extendedÃ¢â¬âanywhere from 10,000 to 25,000 additional miles depending on how the vehicle is used. Natural gas does not react to metals the way gasoline does, so pipes and mufflers last much longer. The Performance Advantage Natural gas gives the same mileage as gasoline in a converted vehicle. Dedicated CNG engines are superior in performance to gasoline engines. CNG has an octane rating of 130 and has a slight efficiency advantage over gasoline. Because CNG is already in a gaseous state, NGVÃ¢â¬â¢s have superior starting and drivability, even under severe hot and cold weather conditions. NGVÃ¢â¬â¢s experience less knocking and no vapor locking. The CNG Cost Advantage Natural gas is cheaper per equivalent gallon than gasoline (an average of 15% to 50% less than gasoline). The Safety Advantage Surveys indicate that NGVÃ¢â¬â¢s are as safe or safer than those powered by other fuels. A 1992 AGA survey of more than 8,000 vehicles found that with more than 278 million miles traveled, NGV injury rates per vehicle mile traveled were 34% lower than the rate for gasoline vehicles. There were no fatalities reportedÃ¢â¬âeven though these vehicles were involved in over 1,800 collisions. The Financial Incentive Advantage Some States offers a 50% investment tax credit for each vehicle converted to natural gas. This 50% credit on state income tax features a three-year, carry-forward option. A federal tax deduction is also available for the cost of conversion. Apprehensions in Industry The CNG Stations Owners Association of Pakistan (CSOAP) in January 2009 demanded the government to introduce a separate tariff for CNG to protect the investment by CNG station owners. An executive committee members meeting of CSOAP Thursday urged the Ministry of Petroleum and OGRA to keep the CNG policy 1992 enforced. The recent steps by the government to increase gas price would damage the CNG industry and would put additional burden on the common man. The current increase of 10 percent in gas prices is unjustified and uncalled for when the fuel prices all over the world have plunged. The 33 percent steep increase of gas prices in July 2008 by SSGCL and SNGPL was fully absorbed by CNG station owners and dealers by reducing their profit margins. He said the CNG sector as a whole consumes less than 6 percent of total gas output from SSGCL and SNGPL. The investments of more than Rs 60 billion of middle and lower middle class people who converted their vehicles to use cheap and environmental friendly CNG would go waste if the government does not revert the recent increase of gas price immediately. The CNG industryÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to reduce governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s burden of foreign exchange payments and huge savings of Forex reserves resulted from shift to CNG use in vehicles. He claimed CNG has resulted in savings of more than $250 million per annum of foreign exchange for Pakistan. The recent increase of gas prices would force the CNG vehicle owners to buy CNG at a higher rate forcing CNG stations to close down their businesses leaving 2. 1 million vehicle owners including rickshaws and taxis prone to inflation. He said if the government did not meet their genuine demands, they would be forced to shut down their businesses and would not be able to pay their leasing payments and other loans. All Pakistan CNG Association (APA) in 2008 had also expressed resentment over the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to increase CNG prices equalizing petroleum prices so as to resolve ongoing gas crises in the country. The APA has contacted the planning division for holding a meeting on the issue but the concerned officials have refused to meet the stakeholders, he claimed. The APA chairman Sana-ur-Rehman claimed that there is an anti-CNG lobby in the planning division. He said that the CNG stakeholders have invested Rs 90 billion in this sector and another Rs 20 billion investment is in pipeline. He expressed apprehensions that the industry would totally collapse if the CNG prices were equalized with petroleum prices. According to APA Chairman, the CNG sector accounts only for 6 percent of the national gross consumption of the natural gas, where as it is being portrayed as the cause for present gas shortage crisis. The domestic sector consumes 21 percent gas during summer, which rises to 69 percent in winter and that was actually responsible for the gas shortage every winter season. He informed journalists that gas was provided to industrial sector for a contract of 9 month in a year. The industries were required to arrange for alternate energy source during the remaining three months of winter, he maintained. However, he regretted that the government machinery wanted to provide supply of gas to industrial sector throughout the year for the last several years against the contractual obligations. CNG Conversions Converting a gasoline-powered car to CNG requires only minor engine modifications. To learn more about converting your car, please contact a certified CNG conversion company. (c) ECONOMIC PAKISTAN
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The process of producing an environment in which individuals can perform duties to the best of his or her ability is known as performance management. The processes of performance management start when the company requires an employee to perform a specific and ends when an employee departs from the organization (Heathfield, 2013). At Riordan Manufacturing there are many important positions that depend on the performance management system to ensure that employees achieve company set goals and objections. Riordan Manufacturing performance management systems are very important. The two positions chosen by Team D to discuss in this paper are the customer service rep and chief financial officer. Team D will describe the general function of performance management systems, suggest two job evaluation methods for the positions, suggest two job evaluation methods for each position, and determine the advantages and disadvantages of the methods concerning each position. Team D will also compare and contrast possible compensation plans for the two positions and explain the importance of providing employee benefit plan to the customer service rep and chief financial officer positions at Riordan Manufacturing. General Function of Performance Management Riordan Manufacturing uses performance managing systems that include annual pay modifications based upon performance, along with employee recognition programs. RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s determines the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual pay changes by the position in relation to the external market, along with performance expectations set by the company. The performance expectations fall into three categories, which are does not meet, meets, and exceeds. Increase in pay is always a motivator for increasing performance and productivity amongÃ employees. Riordan Manufacturing also offers three kinds of awards/programs for their employees under their performance management systems. The company offers an outstanding employee award once a year. RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s management and employees nominate high performance employee who have achieved high rating in employee performance. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s committee of executives reviews the candidates selected and presents the winner with the most outstanding employee Ã¢â¬â¢s award. One qualification is modeling respect for diversity, which is something that Riordan is serious about. Riordan rewards the value the company has in the morals of employees. The other award given by Riordan is the seniority award. The company gives these awards to employees as he or she complete career milestones at one year, fifth year, tenth year, and 20th year. Although the seniority award is not monetary, it is important for the employees to notice that Riordan is noticing their loyalty and contributions to the company. The last program offered by Riordan under their performance management systems is the employee suggestion program. The company gives this reward to employees when he or she make suggestions for products put into place. The employees receive a $25 check and their picture in the company newsletter; although this does not measure the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s daily performance it does motivate them to make contributions for the good of the company. Using performance management systems helps Riordan rate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performances and motivates each employee to work as a team. For example, using the annual pay adjustments it would becoming apparent to Riordan executives that employees were not doing their jobs if they rated Ã¢â¬Å"does not meetÃ¢â¬ for two years in a row, it would be time for a face-to-face. Job Evaluation Methods Riordan Manufacturing currently employs 550 employees. The company has positions ranging from production to chief legal counsel. The company takes pride in attracting highly qualified employees. Each position at Riordan plays a vital role to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Therefore, company expects each employee to focus on achieving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals. Many of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s job functions performed by employees assist Riordan in maintaining a competitive advantage on the market. Two important positions held at Riordan Manufacturing are the customer service representative and theÃ Chief Financial Officer. The customer service is one of the many faces of Riordan as the employee interacts directly with the customers of Riordan. The Chief Financial Officer takes on the responsibilities within Riordan and directs the human resources functions along with the financial operations. The customer service representative is a valuable position that would work well wit h the classification method. The classification method works well with organizations that have several locations or many employees. Therefore, Riordan classifies each customer service representative with other similar job content or classes. The advantage of using the classification method is that it will allow Riordan to organize easily the many positions along with establishing a compensation package for each position based upon their classification. Some of the disadvantages may include several positions appearing to fit in more than one class or the classifications may seem biased or subjective judgments. With the chief financial officer (CFO) possessing a more critical position and role within the company, the ranking method may also be beneficial to Riordan. The ranking method for job evaluations is quite simple and in most instances inexpensive. This can often reduce the money spent on implementing strategic techniques and be applied in other areas of Riordan such as company improvements, or employee rewards. The disadvantage of the ranking method is that it can be subjective or rely heavily on a person or group of people to determine the worth of each position. There are several job methods used to perform job evaluations; however, it is essential for Riordan or any organization to determine which one will most suites the company and aid in its success. Compensation Plans It is important to have competitive and attractive compensation plans to ensure that Riordan attracts highly qualified employees. There are many options or approaches to use with compensation plans. The employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s position often dictates what type of compensation plan he or she receives. For a customer service representative (CSR), compensation plans may include a basic wage structure along with a merit pay incentive. With merit pay, the CSR receives an increase in pay based on a percentage (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Employees who perform better typically receive a greater percentage increase. Another option is a pay-for performance program. This option usesÃ performance measures to determine the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s pay rate and not just time spent on the job. Each employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s pay rate depends on his or her individual, team, department, or organizational productivity (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Both of these compensation plans are effective but some employees may worried about not knowing what his or her pay rate is ahead of time in the pay-for-performance program. The compensation plans for the CFO are different from those provided for CSRÃ¢â¬â¢s. As an executive member of Riordan, the CFOÃ¢â¬â¢s salary is substantially higher than the lower-level employees. For example, the current Riordan CFO, Dale Edgel, received an annual salary of $125, 00 with the ability to earn up to 30% of his salary in executive bonuses (Riordan, 1999). Compensation plans for executive employees are considerably higher because of his or her level of responsibility. That responsibility not only provides the executives with higher salaries but also compensation plans that include stock option plans. Executive compensation plans serve the same purpose as those used from lower-level employees. Executive positions typically require specialized or advanced education and employees who meet those requirements can be very selective when choosing a job. The compensation plans for those positions must be very attractive to appeal to those individuals. Importance of Employee Benefits Riordan understand that benefits are essential in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce to retain current talent and attract new high-level talent. Riordan has benefit packages required by law, such as Social Security, WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Compensation, Unemployment Compensation, and FMLA. The company also offers vacation benefits, 401k plans, childcare assistance plan, dental, educational assistance, flextime scheduling, and holiday pay to attract and retain employees. The company offers these benefits to full-time employees when hired into the company, and he or she can accrue more perks as tenure at Riordan grows. Riordan understands that employees need a benefit package that promote a work life balance, the ability to take care of his or her family in case of a medical emergency, and to plan for his or her future. Whether the employee is the CFO or a CSR the benefit package does not change. Employees who believe a company is willing to take care of him or her makes job satisfaction and employee engagement much easier toÃ achieve. Furthermore, employees who believe he or she is capable of advancing his or her career and the company paying for it helps entry-level employee. The company encourages customer service rep to believe that he or she has a future in becoming a future chief financial officer. Riordan provides Education Assistance Programs to help employees grow a skill set that relates to his or her role in Riordan. Although it does not guarantee advancement, it does promote engagement and sustain performance for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s staff. Riordan commits to making each employee know he or she is a value to the company from the top of the company to the entry-level jobs. The company understands that providing benefits in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is important in attracting the most talented and motivated individuals and believe the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s array of benefits help accomplish goals and promote a healthy work environment. Conclusion Riordan Manufacturing recognizes the processes of performance management are essential in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s working environment. Riordan Manufacturing CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s process of performance management will assist the company in enhancing employee job satisfaction and commitment. Riordan Manufacturing used various job performance methods for each individual job position the company. These job performance methods help the company to maintain financial strength and promote employee growth. Riordan performance managementÃ¢â¬â¢s process also includes an attractive compensation, employee benefits plan to attract highly qualified employees. Using this process is what helps Riordan Manufacturing ensure employees achieve company goals, and objections, and sustain the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employee job satisfaction. References DeCenzo, D., & Robbins, S. (2007). Fundamentals of human resource management (9th ed.), retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. Heathfield, S., 2013, Performance Management, Retrieved from http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryp/g/perform_mgmt.htm Riordan, Michael (August 15, 1999) Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Riordan/docs/HR/EmpFiles/Dale%20Edgel%20Offer%20Letter.pdf
Friday, September 27, 2019
Self-Reflection on Working at a Group Presentation - Essay Example Preferably the group aimed a postcode with numerous cases of crimes and an equal presentation of all forms of crimes. Hanger hill was selected as a collaborative decision. All members supported the decision since the postcode was known for its crime rates and it presented numerous talking points that would increase the creativity in the project. In addition, the location was researched friendly since most of our group members have visited the place which minimized the challenges that may be presented. After the creation of the group, we embraced the assumption that the arrangement provided us with an opportunity to exploit the abilities of each member(Finch & Fafinski, 2012). For this reason, each group member was provided with specific responsibility and a time framework before they could present their works. However, the activities were conducted in a collaborative manner. For instance, the group member in charge of coming up with online data on the selected postcode requested for website suggestion and all group members obliged to the request. After all, responsibilities were presented, the croup would then convene and discuss the results and date collected. At this time, presentation ideas were presented as a collective selection on the idea was reached. However, minor differences were experienced as group members disagreed on the ways of collecting data, the time margin provided and the mode of presentation. In addition, the group lacked motivation and this was a major hindra nce to the quality and completion of the project. The group dynamic makes it easy to complete projects since one is able to specialize in one activity and the rest of the members handled other requirements. Research for the presentation was conducted mainly from online sources. Through online sources, updated data could be easily obtained (Finch & Fafinski, 2012).
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Managing People in Context - Essay Example This report is based on the Human Resource Management issues that the firm is facing and it aims to look into the problem thoroughly and on the basis of the analysis, it will recommend a certain course of actions that could be taken in order to guide top-level management into making the most efficient and wise decision. Ã The report considers that all possible means of data collection that could be taken from the staff reports and feedback from the workers. It then aims to use various theoretical frameworks that are used in the management in order to arrive and recommend certain actions that could solve the problem that the firm is facing. First of all, the overall human resource policy that we are following is very outdated. This policy is based on the slow and gradual progression of employees who move from the lowest grade to the highest. However, this policy is not appreciated by employees anymore who want rapid changes in the fast-moving world. The researcher would have to info rm that sticking to policy would mean that we will not be able to hire the best possible talent that is available in the market and it will also make the retention of existing pool of skilled employees difficult. In the long-run, as a result of this, we will lag behind our competitors if we do not look at our policy and revise it according to the changing needs of the time. The second important issue that there was a little representation of females in our top-hierarchy and similarly, there is an even lesser representation of minority groups.... By not giving the representation to females and minorities on our top-level panels, we are not letting some new and ground-breaking ideas pass through and hence in the future, we might face scarcity of new ideas that could harm the firm's ability to compete with other firms in the same field. (Heery and Simms, 2009) Furthermore, equally perilous issue is the fact that our workforce is facing a lot of stress and little drive towards work due to the way our compensation and reward system has been derived. There are many people who have complained about the fact that their hard performance goes wasted as there are ineffective promotions and motivation policies that our firm has employed. Furthermore, many of our worker are close to joining a trade union. So, we should try solving their grievances now, in order to form a blockade against the union's entry into the industry. Conclusion: I would like to conclude my report by saying that the human resource system that we are following is faulty and outdated. We cannot stick to it as by clinging onto it, I can see various problems approaching the firm which could be very threatening and in the future the firm may have to spend a lot more in order to correct the situation. Recommendations: Immediate revamping of the current human resource policy and changing it with the modern human resource policy that will help the firm in retention and attraction of new talent who will take the firm to new heights. This can be making the current human resource policy more flexible and hiring people at all levels in the hierarchy and not just at the lowest grade. They further enhance the performance of workers by providing them training as
Kinship System of Yanomamo Culture - Research Paper Example In the Yanomamo community, their males are considered to be more valuable than their female counterparts (Rosman, Rubel & Weisgrau, 2009). The leadership positions in their community determine their villageÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with neighboring villages due to the existing kingship along with marriage patterns. The leaders within the community are chosen from the kinship groups with most members in the village (Early & Peters, 2000). Within the Yanomamo society, marriages are usually arranged by the older kin within them who include brothers, fathers and uncles (Rosman, Rubel & Weisgrau, 2009). In these communities, there exists a social imbalance with women being less than men which is worsened by the fact that some of the men are polygamous. These people additionally practice marriage within related groups of people which have in turn helped in speeding their populationÃ¢â¬â¢s growth (Early & Peters, 2000). The women in these villages undergo abductions along with incest taboos tha t play a great part in decreasing the effects that come from inbreeding. When bilateral marriages between cousins are allowed double relations are created since their parents may have gone through similar marriages (Rosman, Rubel & Weisgrau, 2009). The resultant internal conflicts that arise tend to bring about village fissioning among them. The villages that are not related through marriage are urged to make peace by engaging in trading activities which help them in abstaining from war. Gifts are also offered between the leaders in the warring villages to help in preventing the occurrence of conflicts (Chagnon, 2012). The Yanomamo people usually have role prescriptions within their communities which are mainly keyed into people who hold certain... This research paper focuses mostly on Kinship, that is a vital system among the Yanomamo people. Their culture has mainly remained unchanged due to their ferociousness along with strong wills. Their kinship system conforms to a pattern referred to as the Iroquois classification which insists on them having bilateral cross marriages between cousins. The people from the Yanomamo community usually organize their relationships in the order of closeness. They are organized from the local partilineal moieties, village settlements, feasting alliances, marriage alliances and trading alliances to their enemies. In localized moieties there are rarely partrilineage groups that have members who exceed two grown-up generations with members coming from the same villages. In the Yanomamo community, their males are considered to be more valuable than their female counterparts. The leadership positions in their community determine their villageÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with neighboring villages due to the existing kingship along with marriage patterns. The Yanomamo people usually have role prescriptions within their communities which are mainly keyed into people who hold certain statuses. The individuals living within this community are supposed to know who they really are in order for them to handle their prescribed roles appropriately. The researcher states that individuals with superior statuses within the Yanomamo community are given extra roles for them to perform since they are pivotal for the operations of the society.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Family Law Degree - Essay Example This is clear from the Matrimonial Causes Act of 1973. In this case, Naomi may file a petition for ancillary relief, in particular an order for maintenance pending suit pursuant to 2.53 of The Family Proceeding Rules 1991. It must be made clear that though a divorce terminates a marriage, it does not terminate the relations of the spouse to each other, in the sense that the court may validly order one spouse to financially support the other, particularly if there is a disparity in financial resources. Upon receipt of the application for ancillary relief, the court fixes a first appointment and then provides notice to both parties, particularly to the spouse from whom support is demanded. This is to ensure that the requirements of due process are met. Interim orders may also be made by the court in cases wherein the immediate financial assistance is needed. Naomi can avail of this remedy to ensure that her needs are met and she receives uninterrupted support. Of course, Naomi must present evidence to prove that she is indeed in need of financial support. This is to prevent turning an already-painful divorce process into an opportunistic game. The evidentiary requirements may be found in the Family Proceeding Rules 1991. Pursuant to these Rules - 2.58-(1)A ... General provisions as to evidence etc on application for ancillary relief 2.58-(1)A petitioner or respondent who has applied for ancillary relief in his petition or answer and who intends to proceed with the application before a district judge shall, subject to rule 2.6 7, file a notice in Form M 1 3 and within four days after doing so serve a copy on the other spouse. (2)Where an application is made for ancillary relief, not being an application to which rule 2.61 applies, the notice in Form M I I or M 1 3, as the case may be, shall unless otherwise directed be supported by an affidavit by the applicant containing full particulars of his property and income, and stating the facts relied on in support of the application. (3)Within 28 days after the service of an affidavit under paragraph (2) or within such other time as the court may fix, the respondent to the application shall file an affidavit in answer containing full particulars of his property and income. Naomi may also petition the Court for an issuance of a maintenance order, which will allow Joshua to pay her in increments. A maintenance order may be nominal or specific. It is nominal if there is uncertainty as to the capacity to pay of the respondent and there is a need to keep the action alive. It is specific if definite dates have been set. Moreover, though Naomi and Joshua have been married for only through years, the she is entitled to the same rights as a spouse after a long-term marriage. This is clear in a very recent House of Lords decision. In the case of Miller v. Miller (2006 UKHL 24), the Court held that the benchmark for division should be equal shares, and the length of a marriage should not be a consideration. Three main considerations should be looked upon - financial needs,
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Why is social integration such a problem for immigrants in France - Essay Example (Essess, Dovidio, Dion. 375). European countries faced a large number of migrations after world war-II. The integration of the immigrants is the new challenge for the established states. The countries faced the challenges and struggled with the problem of inclusion of the immigrants in to their social structure. There has been enormous increase in movement of international population with world migration. This is characterized by not only by increased levels of permanent settlement and labor in foreign countries but also temporary migration with varying purpose. The integration of the immigrants, the inclusion of population in the existing social structure of the immigration country is one of the concerns of the state policies and structure. There are four major dimensions, which differentiated the process of integration. The first one is the structure integration, which is the acquisition of rights and access to membership and position to the society. The education system, labor market, housing and citizenship are major factor affects structural integration. The second dimension is cultural integration, which is a precondition of participation and refers to process of cognitive, cultural, behavioral and attitudinal change of persons. The third one is Social integration. The social integration is reflected in the relationship with society and group members. The social intercourse, friendship, marriage and involvement in voluntary association are the part of social integration. Social identification is the fourth dimension. The nationality, ethnics and other forms of multiple and social identification reflect in the membership to a new society. Like other countries in Europe France is also face the increasing of immigration. The European integration and opening up of the internal border of countries within Europe cause the increase in migration in France. The major risk affected by the opening up of borders is immigration, drug trafficking and international crime. The France has had a long history of receiving and encouraging the immigrants. The different goal of immigration is forced by labor needs and population replacement. Between 1850 and 1913 the number of immigrants entering France increase from 3,80,000 to 1.6 million. In this period immigration is encouraged by industrialization in France. Following World War-I the shortage of labor due to military causalities expanding industries welcomes the immigrants to France. During 1921 to 1931 the immigrants' population is increased to 2.7 million, from the major parts of China, Vietnam and different parts of Asia and Africa. The end of World War-II the Government introduce d the centrally controlled policy favoring migration. The Office of National del' Immigration (ONI) was established in 1945 and its regulated residence and employment of foreigners in the country. (James, Rita. 147). In 1974 the government tightened the policy on immigrants and stopped labor immigrants and temporary workers and given preference to the relatives of migrants. In 1984 the French Government rejected one third of migration request from different part of the world. From 1990 onwards the Government rejected 71 to 84 percent of asylum seekers to France. (Heckmann, Schnapper. 16) Issues for Immigrants The France is a country with long history of immigration and there is tradition called 'assimilation
Monday, September 23, 2019
RGB LEDs Colour Mixing Controller Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1
RGB LEDs Colour Mixing Controller - Lab Report Example The major aim of designing a light emitting diode mixing controller is largely for managing and controlling light emitting diodes colour points. It is also responsible for maintaining the controlled light colours to produce desired lighting effects. Another aim is to reduce cases of failed colour lighting in producing the RGB effect. For these aims to be achieved, specific objectives are necessary. Firstly, identification of all required equipment such as LEDs and power sources with appropriate current feeding is made. Secondly, the main controller is broken down into stages such that each stage can produce an independent controller for the purposes of achieving desired lights at each stage. Lastly, every stage involved use of assurance techniques to ensure that required voltages were attained. Introduction Lighting systems have been identified as some of the most beautiful creations of electronic engineering. Achieving lighting effects depends on the equipment used, mostly, LEDs. Given that most lighting designs employ the single LED technology, RGB employees the use of three Light emitting diodes, each with a corresponding primary colour. Designing and implementing RGB LEDs controller is a complicated multistage process. Achieving accuracy has been identified as one of the greatest milestones in practical electronic engineering design (Box 2010).
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Definitions of biological science Essay 1) Cite 3 definitions of biological science. Why is it significant to include it in your curriculum? a) Science of life b) Transcends such as sciences as chemistry, physics, mathematics and geology c) Study of living things * We can have informationÃ¢â¬â¢s about the workings of living systems, turning the discoveries into medical treatments, methods of growing food and innovative products. We can learn organic structure, properties and chemical mechanism as we apply biological systems. It will empower us to understand and even predict about living things and other related to science. 2) Analyze the timeline of biology presented and discussed previously. What do you think are the 5 major inventions or discoveries of all time? Prove your point. a) 1961 Leonard Hayflick demonstrated that a population of normal human fetal cells in a cell culture divide between 40 and 60 times then enter a senescence phase. b) 1970 Geerat Ã¢â¬Å"GaryÃ¢â¬ Vermeij, a blind scientist, while studying mollusks in Guam, discovered that predators play a major role in determining how and why specie change. In 1992 he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship and in 1996 published Ã¢â¬Å"Privileged Hands: A Scientific LifeÃ¢â¬ . c) 1974 Ã¢â¬â Albert Claude, a Belgium-born biologist, won the Nobel for his work on the sub-structure of the cell. d) 1977 Ã¢â¬â Robert Ballard and John B. Corliss found unknown creatures thriving on bacteria from that depended on sulfur from volcanic vents. e) 1981 Ã¢â¬â Lynn Margulis wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Symbiosis in Cell EvolutionÃ¢â¬ . She proposed that three types of prokaryotes fused biologically to create the first living cells with nucleic structures. 3) Name 5 approaches/disciplines that are related to biology and make connections why you consider them related to biology. a) Botany study the ways in which we can manipulate the growth of plants and genetically alter them for nutritional or environmental benefits. Plants will lead you to study their individual structures, how plants are alike and how they differ, and how to identify and classify plants of all kinds. b) Cell Biology Cell biology is the sub discipline of biology that studies the basic unit of life, the cell. It deals with all aspects of the cell including cell anatomy, cell division and cell processes such as cell respiration, and cell death. c) Herpetology the field of herpetology may include studies related to behavior, genetics, anatomy, physiology, ecology, health, and reproduction. d) Integrative Biology the study and research of biological systems. It does not simply involve one discipline, but integrates a wide variety of disciplines that work together to find answers to scientific questions. e) Physiology Ã¢â¬â it is a broad sub-field in biology. It may be categorized into animal and plant physiology depending on the organisms described. It determines the relative functions of parts, it crosses another important sub-field in biology. The biological processes and functions of the parts of an organism.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sociological Theories of Leisure: Marx and Weber Leisure is an area of sociological study that has, according to many sociologists including Chris Rojek been neglected. The literature, certainly in the countries of Britain and Australia, has been dominated by views and theories that fit into a Marxist framework. Ã¢â¬ËLeisureÃ¢â¬â¢ is juxtaposed against what is deemed its opposite, Ã¢â¬Ëwork.Ã¢â¬â¢ In this essay I shall attempt to elucidate some of that Marxist framework and then criticise what can be viewed as its limitations thus, hopefully, highlighted and understanding some of the implications necessary for a further and deeper understanding of the sociology of leisure. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s most basic premise, that man in capitalist society is alienated from his own labour, is also, unsurprisingly, the theoretical underpinning for Marxist notions of leisure. The change from older forms of economic markets to capitalist industrialisation forced a schism in the work/leisure relationship. Ã¢â¬Å"The identification of leisure as the sphere in which needs are satisfied and pleasure found simultaneously makes work less susceptible to criticism as unsatisfactory and more salient as that which has to be tolerated to Ã¢â¬ËearnÃ¢â¬â¢ the freedom of leisure. Instrumentalism about work is built into this enforced separation: Ã¢â¬ËleisureÃ¢â¬â¢ is the prize to be won.Ã¢â¬  This demarcation is seen as the principle victory, in a stream of relatively uncontested battles, of capitalism in regards to leisure. The alienation of labour is made more tolerable by leisure activities and pursuits. The idea that one worked to live at the weekend, or outside of work, became prevalent. Work became a means to an end. The sphere of leisure, once created, offered the ruling classes the opportunity to restrict and control workers lives further, in insidious ways, permeating what was supposed to be Ã¢â¬ËfreeÃ¢â¬â¢ time. Ã¢â¬Å"If the working class wants alcohol and music, it shall have them but only to be consumed under certain conditions.Ã¢â¬  Under the guise of caring for workers rights and needs, and by setting up institutions of leisure, the dominant ruling classes could ensure that time away from work was spent in activities deemed appropriate. The point of this control was, of course, to ensure the productivity of workers and thus perpetuate the capitalist market. A hung over worker was of little use. Ã¢â¬Å"The establishment of leisure as consumptionÃ¢â¬ ¦has also been of considerable significance.Ã¢â¬  This was capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢s second great victory in regards to leisure. The capitalist process, at its most fundamental, is all about consumption. By turning leisure into a commodity, to be bought and sold as well as used, revenue could be exploited. The irony and hypocrisy of the sphere of leisure, supposedly free of capitalist ideology, feeding that ideology with new avenues of revenue, production and reproduction, is shown by Clarke and Critcher. The freedom of leisure is a fallacy. Ã¢â¬Å"The much vaunted democracy of the market-place rests on the rather less democratic foundations of the profoundly unequal distribution of wealth and income.Ã¢â¬  Instead of resistance to the fact that choice is limited, nay controlled, by the market, we, the consumer, value what choices we do have all the more. Choice in leisure is curtailed by social division and unequal distribution.Ã¢â¬Å"Those with relatively more control over work tend to have more control over their leisure; class does not end at the factory gateÃ¢â¬ ¦gender even less so.Ã¢â¬  Clarke and Critcher indicate a direct link between the alienation of work, to an alienation of leisure, precisely because they conceptualise leisure as being a by product of what we term as work. Leisure is defined by work, caused by work and needed because of work in a capitalist industrial society. Resistance to leisure models are, according to Clarke and Critcher, ultimately futile. The market can not completely control how leisure products are used, the young especially tend to use them in ways never envisioned. This would be seen as a site of resistance except, Ã¢â¬Å"Such strategies may modify but cannot challenge the market/consumer model. Before we can modify the meaning and use of any commodity, we must first enter the market as consumers to acquire it.Ã¢â¬  Ã¢â¬Å"In a manner sometimes reminiscent of the early Marx, Simmel argues that modern production is not the site of creativity, of individuality, of pleasure.Ã¢â¬  Marx stated that workers were alienated from their species being, their creativity, individuality and ultimately their pleasure. Simmel here echoes those sentiments. He also concurs that leisure is an escape from such alienation. Ã¢â¬Å"In this context then, the history of forms of leisure is the history of labour The exhaustion of our mental and physical energies in work lead us to require only one thing of our leisure; Ã¢â¬Ëwe must be made comfortableÃ¢â¬â¢; Ã¢â¬Ëwe only wish to be amused.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬  These notions are very similar to those of Marxist and neo-Marxist theorists such as Clarke and Critcher. Leisure is a reward for time spent working and the real purpose of leisure is to repair and relax the worker ready to once more be a useful member of the industrial complex. Ã¢â¬Å"The sphere of non-work, ostensibly that of leisure, can also be filled out by consumption and by circulation in search of what is new. Where a mass of consumers has been created, commodities can be sold for their price rather than their quality.Ã¢â¬  It is to be noted that in sociology of the Marxist tradition, and here in SimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s own words, what constitutes leisure in a capitalist society for the workers is judged morally bankrupt and alienating. Quantity over quality, mere amusement over the satisfaction of any deeper needs. Many theorists question this view. Wrestling would certainly be treated as such mere amusement in a Marxist or Simmel tradition, yet for Barthes, such Ã¢â¬ËlowÃ¢â¬â¢ culture reproduces the Ã¢â¬Ëspecies beingÃ¢â¬â¢ that they see as lacking from capitalist leisure. The Marxist tradition makes those judgements with very little empirical evidence. As Rojek states, Ã¢â¬Å"So far leisure and other studies have provided little sense of what people actually do or feel in pubs, gardens, kitchens, on pitches or package tours.Ã¢â¬  The assumption of what people experience during leisure is dangerous.  In Freudian psychology, Ã¢â¬Å"An irresistible verbal transitionÃ¢â¬ ¦effortlessly replaces theÃ¢â¬ ¦term Ã¢â¬Ëleisure,Ã¢â¬â¢ with a substitute, Ã¢â¬Ëpleasure.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬  In essence our existence, at the polymorphous perversity stage, begins as fun. The processes of society, the rules of the ego, attempt to cage that fun. Ã¢â¬Å"The world of fun is repressed.Ã¢â¬  Freud noted the classic bourgeois ego, perhaps best represented by VeblenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Leisure class.Ã¢â¬  For Freud, it was, Ã¢â¬Å" Just this Ã¢â¬ËobjectivityÃ¢â¬â¢ which justified the utilitarian tradition in psychology, and, viewing the individual as a consumer rather than a producer, regarded pleasure as the consequence of possessing valued objects.Ã¢â¬  Freud depicted the Bourgeois ego as deriving its pleasure from owning commodities. This pleasure was leisure and inexorably, in both implicit and explicit ways, the subordinate classes were compelled to adopt this view because, as Rojek points out, Ã¢â¬Å"the ideas of the bourgeois class are the ruling ideas in society.Ã¢â¬  Interestingly, Freudian psychology breaks with Marxist tradition. The pleasure of fun is not to be found in commodities. Commodities are the only form of leisure since, under capitalist ideology all leisure is a commodity. So, reacting to the psychological need to escape from the alienation of work, people seek excitement from their commodities instead. Ã¢â¬Å"Consumption has become excitingÃ¢â¬ ¦Possession, of course, remains its prerequisite, but necessity is held in abeyance.Ã¢â¬  The act of shopping in itself has become the excitement, the commodity itself holds less importance. Evidence of this comes from, Ã¢â¬Å"The comparative longevity of modern goods (Which are) overwhelmed by the wish for continual newness.Ã¢â¬  Freud, rather pessimistically, saw no real way out of this ideological trap, hence his claim, Ã¢â¬Å"For psychoanalysis the modest therapeutic aim of Ã¢â¬Ëtransforming neurotic misery into common unhappiness.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬  Ã¢â¬Å"Kelly argues that, Ã¢â¬ËIf something has to be done then it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t leisureÃ¢â¬â¢ and that Ã¢â¬Ëleisure is generally understood as chosen activity that is not work.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬  Sociology is replete with such ethereal and vague definitions of just what exactly leisure is. Clarke and Critcher state that their work, Ã¢â¬Å"Does not attempt to lay to rest all those complex definitional questions about what is or is not leisure. We do not believe that these questions can be solved by ever more elaborate analytical juggling.Ã¢â¬  H F Moorhouse takes issue with this. He raises the very salient point that one could consider it blithely ignorant to conduct a whole study without first defining what it is one is researching. Clarke and Critcher rely on a Ã¢â¬Ëself evidentÃ¢â¬â¢ truth of what leisure is. Ã¢â¬ËSelf evidentÃ¢â¬â¢ truths are, quite often, less than self evident. They rely on common sense notions, but sense in this case is not necessarily c ommon. Ã¢â¬Å"It operates with the simplistic and stereotyped view of what most Ã¢â¬ËworkÃ¢â¬â¢ is like, seeing it as impoverished, routinised, deskilled etcÃ¢â¬ ¦..What is a very complicated issue is oversimplified.Ã¢â¬  For Moorhouse, their treatment of work is crude and their definition of leisure spurious. They refuse Ã¢â¬Å"To allow that paid labour can be, for most, a source of satisfaction, purpose, creativity, qualitative experience, and so on.Ã¢â¬  This can only be seen as a weakness. Classical assumptions of the nature of work and leisure may no longer be sufficient. Clarke and Critcher state that they are writing during a time (1985) of transition to Ã¢â¬Ëpost-industrialÃ¢â¬â¢ society. If one take this claim seriously then it has important implications. Ã¢â¬Å"The introduction of flexi-time and the development of human relations techniques in management have made the workplace less oppressive and monotonous for many workersÃ¢â¬ ¦Moreover, technical progress enables paid employment to be conducted from the home.Ã¢â¬  Technology, in particular that most wide of world webs, has magnified the possibilities of working from home and blurred the lines of what constitutes work and leisure still further. The dualistic and simplistic account, as found in Clarke and Critcher and other works in the Marxist tradition, may no longer be completely adequate to explain the sociology of leisure. Their account seems isolated in a very specific moment, a moment of change . Older accounts, VeblenÃ¢â¬â¢s, MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s, SimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s, may have been entirely accurate at the time they were published, but that time has long since past. Other considerations may need to be taken into account. Ã¢â¬Å"My submission is that the distinctions between work and leisure, public and private life, duty and excitement, have blurred.Ã¢â¬  If one takes the work of Rojek seriously, what implications for the tired and simplistic definitions of what constitutes work and leisure? Freud defines leisure as pleasure as fun. If the boundaries of what constitutes leisure and work are indeed eroding could it mean that leisure, pleasure and fun can be found in work? Or work in fun? A cogent example would be of a party that one feels obliged to attend. You do not like the food, you hate the music, youÃ¢â¬â¢re surrounded by people you despise and you would give anything to be anywhere else. Yet this is your leisure time? The sociology of leisure needs to address these concerns. Ã¢â¬Å"Relationships and structures of leisure help mitigate human problems, foster cohesion in communities, alleviate personal suffering, maintain economic stability, and encourage political activity.Ã¢â¬  Some sociologists see leisure as being a site for developing essential social networks, places that maintain and improve cohesion and interaction. If one considers SimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s conception that sociability is the, Ã¢â¬Å"Pure form of interacting independence of individuals,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬  then one might conclude that the development of leisure networks are a Ã¢â¬ËmorallyÃ¢â¬â¢ good occurrence that let actors enjoy true or Ã¢â¬ËpureÃ¢â¬â¢ leisure, pleasure and fun. Perhaps for the good of the sociology of leisure, Ã¢â¬Å"There is a need to shift attention away from the characteristics of individuals or groups as the unit of analysis, and focus on the characteristics of social relationships between people.Ã¢â¬  Ã¢â¬Å"Social structure may also be manipulated by the intentional activities of actors.Ã¢â¬  The Marxist based argument is one sided. The bourgeois are the active oppressors, the working class the submissive victims and there is no room for any real dialogue between workerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire and capitalist ideology.  Also it assumes that capitalist ideology is uniform and coherent. The ideological structure is rarely that simple. Feminist theorists such as Wearing raise the issues of the problem of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences of leisure. Though raised in Clarke and CrichterÃ¢â¬â¢s work, their account does not, perhaps, delve deeply enough into the feminist sociological perspective. The structural and pervasive economic ideology of Marxism is, in many ways, present in feminist accounts, however particular attention should be paid to the fact that this ideology is exclusively the preserve of men, and is not exclusively economic. Theorists such as Butler indicate the problem of explaining womenÃ¢â¬â¢s position in society while being forced to use the only language available, the language of masculinity. Still further Collins critiques feminism as the preserve of white women only. Ã¢â¬Å"If one Ã¢â¬ËisÃ¢â¬â¢ a woman then that is surely not all that one isÃ¢â¬ ¦gender intersects with racial, class, ethnic, sexual and regional discursively constituted identities.Ã¢â¬  In conclusion and as stated above in the introduction to this essay, leisure is very often regarded as having been neglected in the arena of sociological study. Perhaps one of the reasons for this indifference has been the genuine problem of even defining exactly what leisure is. The Marxist tradition has held dominance in the field much since the time of Marx himself. Even those who I have used to criticise some of the Marxist perspectives themselves share many similar views. This is because it is incredibly difficult to understand leisure without its Ã¢â¬Ëopposite.Ã¢â¬â¢ This study is really as much of a study of work as it is of leisure and this author actually can not find fault in that approach. What I do find fault with is the quite often simplistic dualism that is depicted between the two. As Rojek concludes, the edges between work and leisure are blurred and this is something that is important to the future study of leisure. Marxist ideas are frequently accused of being economicly deterministic. Whilst I personally find that accusation a tad harsh, many of the theories outlined above could be accused of considering the economic, the capitalist, a little too much in their theorisations. Ã¢â¬Å"LeisureÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ËIs action in structureÃ¢â¬ ¦produced by action in the real world of roles and responsibilities as well as the division of race, class, age and gender.Ã¢â¬  All of these particular characteristics must be considered in any study of leisure. Moorhouse suggests a methodology. Ã¢â¬Å"Weber used the concepts of status group and lifestyle to refer to specific patterns of consumption and culturally based attachments. Ã¢â¬  What is certain is that by using such concepts, and still further, the sociology of leisure can only broaden its knowledge. Bibliography Roland Barthes Mythologies pub by J. Cape 1972 Roland Barthes Image, music, text pub by Fontana Press 1977 Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 The devil makes work: Leisure in capitalist Britain by J Clarke and C Critcher. Published by Macmillan 1985 Leisure in society, A network structural perspective by Patricia A Stokoswki. Published by Mansell 1994 Ways of Escape by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan Press 1993 Leisure and Feminist Theory by B Wearing. Published by Sage 1998 Gender trouble by Judith Butler. Published by Routledge 1999 Black feminist thought by P H Collins. Published by Routledge 1990 The theory of the leisure class by Thorstein Veblen. Published by The new American library 1959 Footnotes  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 Ways of Escape by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan Press 1993  The devil makes work: Leisure in capitalist Britain by J Clarke and C Critcher. Published by Macmillan 1985 p94-95  Ibid p95  Ibid p95  Ibid p96  Ibid  Ibid p201  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p78  Ibid p83  Ibid p78  Roland Barthes Mythologies pub by J. Cape 1972 Roland Barthes Image, music, text pub by Fontana Press 1977  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p31  Though Rojek himself reaches many of the same himself conclusions regarding the banality of modern leisure, in particular package tours, travel and tourism. Ways of Escape by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan Press 1993  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p53  Ibid p64  The theory of the leisure class by Thorstein Veblen. Published by The new American library 1959 The ruling Bourgeois idea of leisure, for Veblen, was conspicuous consumption, the ostentatious display of wealth through the purchase of commodities.  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p69  Ibid p101  Ibid p70  Ibid p70  Ibid p57  Ibid p17  The devil makes work: Leisure in capitalist Britain by J Clarke and C Critcher. Published by Macmillan 1985 pxiii  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989  Ibid p22  Ibid p25  Ibid p108  Ibid p108  Leisure in society, A network structural perspective by Patricia A Stokoswki. Published by Mansell 1994 p112  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p87  Leisure in society, A network structural perspective by Patricia A Stokoswki. Published by Mansell 1994 p38  Ibid p112  At least not in any meaningful way as we have seen in the above example, from Clarke and Critcher, that the very entry into the market process taints any action with is ideological stigma.  Leisure and Feminist Theory by B Wearing. Published by Sage 1998  Gender trouble by Judith Butler. Published by Routledge 1999  Black feminist thought by P H Collins. Published by Routledge 1990  Gender trouble by Judith Butler. Published by Routledge 1999 p6  Ways of Escape by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan Press 1993  Leisure in society, A network structural perspective by Patricia A Stokoswki. Published by Mansell 1994 p37  Leisure for leisure edited by Chris Rojek. Published by Macmillan press 1989 p31
Friday, September 20, 2019
Main Factors Leading To The Cuban Revolution History Essay What at the time seemed so surprising about Cuba in 1959 was that such a thoroughgoing social revolution happened there, given its relative prosperity. The answer is to be found in the particular historical conditions of the country. Cuba had, since independence from Spain, been prone to political instability and had undergone many attempts at change ranging from reformist governments, revolution and dictatorship. All of these attempts, and the reasons underlying them, played a part in the eventual triumph of Fidel Castros revolution and, in the failure of previous attempts at changing Cuba, lay the seeds of the new order on the island. As Ruiz (1968, p.7) points out, the 1959 revolution represented no sharp break with the past. The conditions for revolution had long been present and previous responses to them conditioned the path that the revolution of 1959 would take. What, then, were the factors in Cubas history and in its social and political life which made that revolution possi ble? Having identified them, one must turn to a discussion of the conditions during Fulgencio Batistas dictatorship from 1952 to the end of 1958 and the course that resistance to it took, and how that resistance, with Castro at its head, eventually triumphed. The historical conditions which contributed to the triumph of the revolution were categorized by Wright (2001, p.2) into four main areas: firstly, anti-American sentiment, provoked in Cuba by economic and political dependence on America since independence, secondly the negative effects on Cuban society and its economy of overdependence on sugar production, thirdly, the fragmented and divided nature of Cuban society and lastly, the weakness of Cuban political institutions, their lack of legitimacy, and the unpopularity of a political class tainted by corruption. To this last point may be added the propensity of Cuban politics to descend into violence, a trend dating back to the independence struggle against Spain. United States forces occupied Cuba after it had gained independence from Spain in 1898 and its influence was to be a constant in the political and economic system of the island. The most glaring and most resented example of United States intervention in Cuba was the Platt Amendment of 1902. This put limits on how much Cuba could borrow from foreign countries and the negotiation of treaties. It also allowed the United States the right to intervene for the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty (Williamson, 1992, p.439). In effect, Cuba became a protectorate of the United States. The Platt Amendment represented a humiliation to many Cubans and a betrayal of the independence struggle, and remained a contentious issue even after its repeal in 1934. It linked advancement and progress to the need to rid the country of foreign interference and became a key question in Cuban politics. American intervention at such an early stage cut across the process of building confidence in, and legitimacy for, the new institutions of the state recently freed from colonial rule and identified the whole political system from its start with foreign domination. It also influenced the conduct of politicians who relied on the support of America to settle political disputes, which were many in the first 20 to 30 years of the Republics life (Thomas, 1971). Early Cuban elections were fraudulent affairs and United States intervention was called upon on a number of occasions. An armed challenge to the government elected in 1906 resulted in United States intervention and resulted in direct rule until 1909. Further interventions took place in 1912, and again in 1917 when the election result was challenged by an armed revolt by the defeated party. Another important intervention came during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado. The American ambassador first replaced the dictator Machado and then supported the army backed overthrow of his successor, Ramon San Martin Grau (Argote-Freyre, 2006). A sense of the humiliation and moral decay suffered by Cubans is offered by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. (McPherson, 2006, p.40) who said of Havana in 1950 that it resembled a giant casino and brothel. American tourists were picking up 14 year old Cuban girls and tossing coins to make men scramble in the gutter. He went on to say that nobody could be surprised if Cubans hated America. American political and economic influences on Cuba were closely linked. Investment from the United States had been steadily growing from the last days of Spanish rule. It increased in the 1920s as many Cubans had been ruined by the slump in the price of sugar in 1920, and by 1927 amounted to more than a billion dollars (Wright, 2001, p.4). Two thirds of all Cuban exports went to America in the 1950s (Paterson, 1995, p.35). By the 1950s, American interests controlled 90% of the telephone and electricity system, 50% of railways and 40% of the banking sector (Girling, 1980, p.49). This economic control had a number of effects on Cuba, one of which was in the way it limited the room to manoeuvre of Cuban governments. According to Ruffin (1990, p.77) economic dependence severely restricted political leadership in Cuba. Politicians for the most part acted in defence of American interests. For much of Cubas Republican history the need to appease American interests, and those of their followers in Cuba, made it difficult to influence any reforms which conflicted with those interests. The increasing American control over the Cuban economy meant a tightening of American political influence over Cubas affairs and meant that defending those interests became a prime concern for Cuban political parties. Legislation, such as much needed land reform, became subservient to the interests of the sugar producers who owned vast areas of land. In 1933, the government of Grau fell in part because the Americans refused to recognise it due to the reforms which it attempted to implement. Most Cuban politicians were unable or unwilling to upset the Americans and to disrupt the industry to which Cuba owed so much of its prosperity but which also fatally undermined its institutions (Ruffin, 1990). Taking on America was daunting, given Cubas dependence on American markets. Nowhere was this dependence on American markets more apparent, nor the need for change greater, than in the reliance of the Cuban economy on sugar production. The overdependence on sugar, which accounted for 85% of Cuban exports in the 1950s, (Wright, 2001, p.5) skewed not only the Cuban economy but also its political life and brought many social problems in its train. Decisions taken in Washington concerning quotas, duties and so on can and did have a profound effect on the Cuban economy. Cuba produced 3.6 million tons of sugar in 1923, rising to 5.2 million tons in 1925 and 7 million tons in 1952, falling to 4.7 million tons in 1954. Prices underwent similar swings which made economic planning difficult (Williams, 1970, p.480). The consequences of this dependence were many. Peasants were displaced creating an army of landless rural workers. Furthermore, as work on the sugar plantations was seasonal, from December to April, many were unemployed for a good part of the year (Ruffin, 1990). This unemployment, unlike the rise and fall of employment in other industries, was endemic to the system in Cuba appearing predictably every year when the sugar harvest was over. In addition, sugar attracted investment away from other crops and industries. Sugar companies owned or rented 70-75% of Cubas arable land (Sheer Zeitlin, 1964, p.24) and Cuba had to import much of the food which it needed. Other negative effects were to be seen in the financial sector. American banks were attracted to Cuba to underwrite the costs of the sugar industry. The 1920s was a key decade in this respect. Many who had borrowed in the boom years saw their fortunes wiped out during the depression and the stock market crash of 1929. The Cuban banking system collapsed, and the gap was plugged by foreign, mainly American banks. Whether the crop was good or bad or whether prices were high or low also had political and social consequences. Dulles (cited in Paterson, 1995, p.35) in a comment to President Eisenhower said that a reduction in the amount of Cuban sugar coming into America might easily tip the scales to cause revolution For example, Machados regime from 1925 to 1933 was marked by the convulsions caused by the fluctuations in the price of sugar and the collapse in the economy following the Wall Street crash of 1929 and which provoked a wave of strikes and street violence which were countered by a range of repressive tactics. On the other hand, the good years could help to provide a measure of political and social stability, as during the 1940s. There were social aspects to the sugar system as well. To meet the demand for labour in the good years, manpower was imported from Haiti, Jamaica and China sharpening already tense racial relations (Patterson, 1994). The existence of large numbers of workers who were unemployed for most of the year outside of the sugar harvesting season between December and April was always a potential focus for social and labour unrest. According to Sheer et al. (1964) all the mischievousness of the sugar system were aggravated by the fact that many Cubans saw them as having been inflicted by American business interests. The insurgents who had fought in the war of Independence targeted the cane fields and sugar mills burning many. It was during the American occupation when the industry was built back up again. Hostility to dependence on sugar and America constituted a grievance around which diverse groups in the fractured Cuban society could unite. Cuba also suffered from the fragmentation of its society throughout its history (Gott, 2004). Cuba, unlike other countries in Latin America lacked political elite, often composed of large landowners, with ties to the Catholic Church and the Military. In Cuba the old aristocracy had been wiped out during the independence struggle between 1868 and 1895, and there did not exist a powerful landowning class with close ties to the land (Williamson, 1992, p.439). The large sugar plantations dated from the last days of Spanish rule and much of them were in foreign hands. Nelson argued (Thomas, 1971, p.1111) that there was no national middle class. What middle class existed was based overwhelmingly in urban areas. The upper reaches of Cuban society threw in their lot with the system installed by the Americans. Native industry was underdeveloped and the ruling class interests were identified with those of their American allies. The lower classes were also fragmented. Most of the poor lived in the country while only a small urban working class existed in the towns and cities. Class divisions in Cuba were largely along rural urban lines. Some figures relating to rural housing conditions may help to illustrate this division. While Cuba in the 1950s could boast of relatively high figures in Latin American terms for ownership of consumer goods such as TVs, radios and telephones, the countryside painted a different picture. 97% had no refrigeration facilities, 85% no running water and 91% no electricity (Williams, 1970, p.479). Furthermore, seasonal workers were unemployed for a large part of the year and such an insecure life, in terms of employment, coloured their relationship with other groups and with society as a whole. Ruiz (1968, p.147) sums it up by his comments that no social or ideological bonds united workers or integrated them into the structure of society. Racial and ethnic divisions were also a feature of life in Cuba. Fear of a black takeover retarded the development of the independence movement in Cuba. Blacks made up a considerable proportion of the Cuban population and were disaffected with their treatment after their role in the independence struggle and by the history of slavery on the island. This disaffection was on occasions exploited by politicians in the early years of the Republic. They made up a considerable part of the army assembled by the Liberals after their defeat in the 1906 elections. A revolt of disaffected blacks took place in 1912 which was ruthlessly suppressed with the loss of 3,000 lives. This event would alienate blacks further from the mainstream of Cuban society (Gott, 2004). Fear of the black population also surfaced in the wake of the 1933 revolution. As the most impoverished section of the population, blacks seized upon the excitement of the times as an opportunity to improve their lot and played a leading role in the agitation on the sugar plantations where soviets were established. Despite the enthusiasm of many blacks for the revolution, thousands of blacks from Haiti were deported evidencing the degree of racial feeling in Cuba (Gott, 2004, p.141). Other institutions in Cuban society lacked popular support or respect and did not constitute a focus for unity or action. The Catholic Churchs position in Cuba had been weakened from independence with the separation of church and state in 1900. The Church was also seen as a white Spanish institution and therefore lacked influence among the black population. Also, unlike other Latin American countries, the Church did not form an alliance with the ruling elite or the military (Gott, 2004). Lastly, the political apparatus itself reflected the fragmentation in society. The parties were unrepresentative and by the 1950s the old mainstream parties were discredited and the way was open for others to fill the gap. Batista tried it with his dictatorship from 1952, but it was Fidel Castro who capitalised on the failure of democratic parties to address Cubas many and varied problems. This failure of democratic politics affected those groups who were to later make up the opposition to Batista and who helped in the success of Castros revolution (Gott, 2004). Weakness, incompetence and corruption were endemic to the Cuban political system from its earliest days. The first President Estrada Palma, led a class of politicians who, according to Thomas (1971, p.472) only sought the spoils of war after their role in the independence struggle. There was not a great deal of ideological differences between the Republican and Liberal parties. They suffered from the start from the involvement of America which wrested prestige and legitimacy from political institutions. Furthermore, the lack of democratic institutions prior to independence had not prepared Cubans well for eventual self government. The tradition of taking up arms, forged under Spanish colonial rule, was also frequently resorted to, which called into question the credibility of the entire political system. The possibility of calling in America as the arbiter of disputes was the default fallback position. The far from auspicious start represented by the fraud surrounding the first elections and the armed revolt against the government of Estrada Palma and the subsequent American intervention set the tone for electoral politics in the early years of Cuban democracy. Competition was not so much based on principle, rather as a crude struggle to see who would control the resources of the state which provided the means for personal enrichment, with the unfortunate turning readily to violence when hindered (Thomas, 1971). In a society dominated by sugar, and foreign owned industry, control of government jobs and access to the states resources proved to be a source of patronage and of enrichment for many. For example, between 1943 and 1949 the government payroll increased from 60,000 to 131,000 (Goldenberg, 1965, p.110). Many other corrupt practices existed such as the granting of permission for the sale of lottery tickets and it has been estimated that the dictator Machado made $3,000,000 a year from lottery collectorships (Sheer Zeitlin, 1964, p.46). These corrupt practices also provided a means of securing the loyalty of those who benefited from them. Electoral fraud was also a fact of life in a system where none of the parties had genuine mass appeal. Gott reports (2004, p.114) that in the early elections, armed supporters of the different parties would be present at polling stations and in the elections of 1916 the number of votes cast outnumbered eligible voters (Gott, 2004, p.127). The government of Gerardo Machado promised a new start. It initially was reformist and enjoyed a degree of popularity. However, it suffered from the uncertainty and turbulence of the 1920s in Cuba, occasioned by fluctuations in the market price for sugar and the eventual collapse of the Cuban banking system. In 1928, and despite a pledge not to govern for more than one term, Machado was elected unopposed for a second time. He also extended the length of his term from 4 to 6 years. It was a measure of the low standards of the Cuban political system that this flouting of democratic practice was supported by all the other parties in the Congress. There was a huge amount of social unrest, strikes, assassinations and bombings to which Machado responded with brutal repression (Gott, 2004). By the late 1920s a new generation was emerging of Cubans born in the Republic who expected more from it and who charged the old guard of betraying the ideals of the revolution which had won independence. Students, always to the forefront in Cuban political affairs, were particularly impatient for change, and groups such as the Directorio Estudiantil were to play an important role in the revolution which would topple the dictatorship of Machado (Thomas, 1971). The situation in Cuba was fast escaping from Machados control. The strikes, violence and worsening economic situation raised fears of social revolution and engendered a feeling of insecurity and uncertainty. Groups like the ABC, a terrorist organisation made up of middle and upper class students, replied to Machados notoriously brutal police force in kind, killing many of them in the street (Gott, 2004). The American government began to take an interest and sent their ambassador Sumner Welles to Cuba to try and settle the dispute. He tried to convince Machado to go, and when he eventually resigned, faced with the dire situation on the streets, the Americans sought to replace him with someone acceptable to them and amenable to American business interests on the island. Carlos Manuel Cespedes was appointed but proved unable to facilitate the unrest. He was brought down by a group of low ranking army officers led by Fulgencio Batista, a mixed race Cuban whose origins were far removed from the traditional military elite. Ramon San Martin Grau was eventually installed as the new president in 1933 (Argote-Freyre, 2006). The 1933 revolution promised great things for Cuba. The revolution was led in by a new generation untainted by the past and pledged to honour the promises of the independence struggle. There was a strong nationalist hint to their programme and it seemed as if some of Cubas most pressing social and economic problems would be addressed by a new wave of clean politicians. Their hopes were however to be dashed by a combination of American hostility, the betrayal of the revolution by Batista and internal divisions between moderates and radicals. The new government nationalised sugar mills and decreed that 50% of the workforce in all businesses had to be Cuban born. The American government refused to recognise Graus government, fearful of the effects it would have on American economic interests on the island. Batista, waiting in the wings, and mindful of the importance of American backing, especially given the internal opposition to Grau, helped to topple the revolutionary government in 1934 and so began the first of his reigns in Cuba, ruling through his control over a succession of puppet presidents until 1940, and in his own right until 1944. The army had become a player in the government of Cuba for the first time, a development which set a dangerous precedent (Gott, 2004). The 1944 elections were won, surprisingly to many, by Grau in elections which were accepted by all to be fair. Batistas rule had been positive in many aspects and had introduced a new, strongly social democratic constitution in 1940, the restoration of which would be a key demand of the 1950s revolutionaries. The peaceful handover of power to the man who had been vanquished in 1933 promised well for Cubas democratic future. However, the two terms of office of Graus Autentico party, formed after the defeat in 1933, were to prove some of the most corrupt in Cubas history and were probably the last nail in the coffin of peaceful, progressive democratic change on the island. Thomas (1971, p.737) asserts that Grau did more than any other single man to kill the hope of democratic practice in Cuba. Corruption was nothing new in Cuban politics however, for many, the governments of Grau and Prio Socarras were particularly foul and tainted not only by corruption but the actions of armed gangs, according to Thomas (1971, p.741) at least 10, who were tolerated and even used by governments between 1944 and 1948. The actions of Grau and the Autentico party were all the more disheartening for having been responsible by the hero of the 1933 revolution and the party which he founded in its aftermath. The party was able to plunder the countrys inflated repositories by the rise in prices for sugar during the years of the Second World War. The government of Prio Socarras which succeeded that of Grau was described by Sweig (Gott, 2004, p.145) as the most corrupt and violent in Cuban history. When Batista took power following a coup in 1952, it did not meet up with much initial opposition. Cubas political class had by now become totally discredited and many were doubtful if electoral politics could even begin to solve the countrys problems. In a sense Batistas coup was a response to this disillusion but in itself was a continuation of the misfortunes facing Cuban society and could provide no new way forward. Each generation of Cubans had been disappointed by politicians and had seen their hopes dashed leading to a rejection of the leaders of the previous generation. Cubans had no dependable political role models to look to (Wright, 2001, p.6) in changing and difficult times, making it easier for new departures and new methods to gain a hearing. This would have been significant in the revolution of 1959. Having looked at the factors in Cuban history which led to Batistas dictatorship, the problems which the country faced, and their influence on the revolutionary movement of the 1950s, it is time to look at the years of the dictatorship and the opposition which it brought forward in order to fully understand how Fidel Castros revolution triumphed and the path which the final phase of the Cuban revolution took. Cuba was, despite all its problems, a relatively prosperous society and there was some evidence of diversification in industry and a greater involvement by Cubans in the sugar industry. However, many inequalities and divisions remained, and the revolution which toppled Batista did not only seek to unseat an unpopular dictator, but also sought solutions to Cubas economic and social problems. In this respect it echoed the previous attempts at reform of the 1933 revolution and the promises of the 1940 constitution. Other factors were the absolute unpopularity, which was shared by a wide range of groups across society, and weakness of the Batista regime and the appeal and leadership qualities of Castro who at the end emerged as the leader of the new order in Cuba. Batistas regime in contrast was supported only by America, the rich, and the old discredited politicians of Cubas past and had no real social basis of support. The key to the survival of the regime lay in the continued support of America, and once lost, there were few to turn to among the decadent and discredited Cuban politicians who could broaden its appeal (Thomas, 1971). Fidel Castro was a product of the Cuban middle class and a member of the Ortodoxo party, formed in 1947 in response to the corruption of the two Autentico governments of the 1940s. Together with Ernesto Che Guevara he came to personify the revolutionary movement in Cuba. However, his 26th of July movement was not the only force opposed to Batista. Opposition, originated, as so many times before, with the students who were joined by the Autentico and Ortodoxo parties, Cuban intellectuals, and other revolutionary groups. Support for Castro was later to extend across a broad spectrum of Cuban society. The Civic Resistance Movement which supplied logistical support had as leading figures a former director of the National Bank, brokers and doctors (Paterson, 1995, p.30). There was little in Castros radical, but not overtly socialist programme, which would alienate the less radical elements of the anti-Batista opposition or justify outright American hostility and was based on the nationalist sentiment of the war of independence and the anti-American feeling which was an outcome of its perceived betrayal and harked back to the frustrated revolution of 1933. It promised an end to the endemic corruption which had plagued Cuban politics and a restoration of the 1940 constitution (Gott, 2004). The years of Batistas dictatorship were marked by resistance answered with repression. As the repression grew ever more brutal, more Cubans were alienated from Batistas regime. The contribution of the urban resistance to Batista has often been overlooked in favour of the more romantic guerrilla war waged by Castro and his followers when they took off to the mountains of the Sierra Maestra after the failed attack on Santiago in 1956. Resistance involved strikes, sabotage, assassination and propaganda. It was, as Wright asserts, (2001, p.16) the resistance in urban centres which pinned down the Batista forces and enabled Castros to grow in strength in the mountains and who also played a crucial role in supplying Castros guerrillas. The weakening of this resistance in the face of Batistas repression strengthened Castros position. An interview carried out with the American journalist Herbert Matthews and published in the New York Times in 1957 was a key event in the development of the war and a boost to Castros personal standing at home and abroad. It contradicted Batistas claims that Castro had been killed and the guerrilla defeated and aroused a lot of sympathy for the rebels in America. A failed attempt to assassinate Batista carried out by the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil in March 1957 could have changed the course of the revolution but its failure increased repression and eliminated another potential rival to Castro (Wright, 2001). Meanwhile Batista floundered on. An American arms embargo was evidence that he was losing American backing. A failed general strike in April of 1958 gave credence to the idea that only armed struggle would shift Batista. That Castros forces would be the most likely to lead it, was given a boost following Batistas disastrous offensive against the guerrillas in May 1958. Without American backing and unable to defeat the rebels militarily, Batista was condemned. In a bid to win American support and add a veneer of legitimacy to his regime he called elections in November 1958 from which most withheld, highlighting the isolation of his regime. Meanwhile a strengthened Castro began to emerge as the most likely to unseat Batista and his campaign spread outside of his mountain stronghold. After the fall of the city of Santa Clara in December Batista realised his regime was doomed and escaped to the Dominican Republic on New Years Eve 1958 (Paterson, 1995). The revolution had triumphed. The explanation of the 1958 Cuban revolution can be found then, in the history of the country: the anti-American sentiment of a broad spectrum of Cuban society, and the perceived betrayal of the ideals of independence by successive governments, the closely linked phenomenon of overdependence on the sugar trade and the subsequent underdevelopment of the countrys industrial base, the deep social divisions and finally, the weak legitimacy of its political institutions, the violent and undemocratic nature of Cubas political life and the low prestige of its politicians, all served to alienate Cubans from the political process and to seek answers from a new breed of leader. Events rooted in Cubas history made the revolution possible. As Johnson (1970, p.60) observed revolution often happens in countries which have already experienced change and where more change is necessary. Castro in his evocation of historic Cuban grievances which also harked back to previous reform programmes in 1933 and 1940 appealed to a wide range of anti-Batista opinion, but that Castro would be the one to lead it and to take it in a Communist direction was not inevitable. Castros revolution, regardless of what happened after taking power, was not a socialist revolution. It triumphed because it, as Perez contended, did not preach class war (Gott, 2004, p.166). The Soviet Union played no part in his triumph, and indeed the Cuban Communists did not ally themselves with Castro until 1958. Rather in its focus on the betrayal of independence, and his echoing of past failed attempts at reform, Castros programme was the culmination of a process begun on Cubas winning of independence. The ambivalence of America also played a part in Castros victory. The American position on Castro was not clearly defined (Gott, 2004, p.164) and in Castros success in not provoking greater intervention from the force that could have decisively swayed the outcome of the revolution was a key factor in the revolutions success. Another contributing factor was the weakness and indecision of the Batista regime and its identification with the failed policies and methods of the past. Batistas regime fell in part because it was as Julien (Goldenberg, 1965, p.146) observed rotten to the core.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Compiler Compiler, in computer science, computer program that translates source code, instructions in a program written by a software engineer, into object code, those same instructions written in a language the computer's central processing unit (CPU) can read and interpret. Software engineers write source code using high level programming languages that people can understand. Computers cannot directly execute source code, but need a compiler to translate these instructions into a low level language called machine code. Compiler: How It Works Compilers collect and reorganize (compile) all the instructions in a given set of source code to produce object code. Object code is often the same as or similar to a computer's machine code. If the object code is the same as the machine language, the computer can run the program immediately after the compiler produces its translation. If the object code is not in machine language, other programsÃ¢â¬âsuch as assemblers, binders, linkers, and loadersÃ¢â¬âfinish the translation. Most programming languagesÃ¢â¬âsuch as C, C++, and FortranÃ¢â¬âuse compilers, but someÃ¢â¬âsuch as BASIC and LISPÃ¢â¬âuse interpreters. An interpreter analyzes and executes each line of source code one-by-one. Interpreters produce initial results faster than compilers, but the source code must be re-interpreted with every use and interpreted languages are usually not as sophisticated as compiled languages. Most computer languages use different versions of compilers for different types of computers or operating systems; so one language may have different compilers for personal computers (PC) and Apple Macintosh computers. Many different manufacturers often produce versions of the same programming language, so compilers for a language may vary between manufacturers. Consumer software programs are compiled and translated into machine language before they are sold. Some manufacturers provide source code, but usually only programmers find the source code useful. Thus programs bought off the shelf can be executed, but usually their source code cannot be read or modified. When executing (running), the compiler first parses (or analyzes) all of the language statements syntactically one after the other and then, in one or more successive stages or "passes", builds the output code, making sure that statements that refer to other statements are referred ... ... sequence comparison methods. GAMS -- a high-level modeling system for mathematical programming problems. DISGCL -- an interpreter language based on plotting library DISLIN. Glish (within AIPS++ system) -- a language/environment for data acquisition/analysis. Isaac -- scientific calculator and programming language. MAX -- Xbase compiler with integrated database engine. MetaCard -- a multimedia authoring tool and GUI development environment. MSDL -- a scene description language for graphics research. Nickle -- a desk calculator language with powerful programming and scripting capabilities. PerlDL -- turn perl into an array-oriented, numerical language. ProvideX -- an object-oriented, business basic development environment. RLaB -- matrix oriented, interactive programming environment. S-Lang -- an interpreted language could be embedded into an extensible application. Soar -- a cognitive architectural framework and mode ls, and an AI programming language. ZPL -- a portable, high performance parallel programming language for computations. References www.programmersheaven.com www.compiler.net www.msn.encarta.com www.webopedia.com
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
"They are very, very, very good." But are they one of the greatest teams of all time? 1. 1968 UCLA Bruins (29-1) Hard to pick just one of the Lew Alcindor squads as the best, so we defer to John Wooden: "I've never come out and said it, but it would be hard to pick a team over the 1968 team." The Bruins, playing with an injured Alcindor, suffered a mid-season loss to Houston and Elvin Hayes in the Astrodome, but proved that was a fluke in the tourney semifinal, burying the Cougars 101-69. The final was also cake, a 78-55 win over UNC. How'd they do it? To start, they had Alcindor, the best player in college basketball history, who averaged 26 points and 16 rebounds per game. Junior guard Lucius Allen, senior Mike Warren, Jr., Lynn Shackleford and senior Mike Lynn also averaged in double figures for the season. 2. 1996 Kentucky Wildcats (34-2) Rick Pitino's Wildcats were so good that they could have been a decent NBA team in 1995-96 -- Antoine Walker, Tony Delk, Walter McCarty, Derek Anderson and Ron Mercer would all be first-round picks, and Mark Pope was a second-round draft choice. Even though Kentucky lost two regular-season games, they established themselves as one of the all-time great teams by destroying the competition in the Big Dance, winning their six tourney games by an average of 21 points. The Wildcats were, by far, the deepest team in recent college basketball history, with so many stars that some were amazed that Pitino was able to keep it all together. "Rick's done a phenomenal job," Providence coach Pete Gillen said. "I mean, how does he keep Ron Mercer happy playing 12 minutes a game? This guy was maybe the No. 1 high school player in the country last year, according to some magazines or newspapers or gurus. Rick's got to be the greatest psychologist since Sigmund Freud. He's my idol. He could sell freaking snow to the Eskimos. It's unbelievable." 3. 1976 Indiana Hoosiers (32-0) Over the two seasons that culminated in their 1976 national championship, the Hoosiers, coached by the ornery Bob Knight, went 63-1. To win the title in Philly, Indiana, behind a combined 51 points from Scott May and Kent Benson and a great all-around performance by Quinn Buckner, defeated Big Ten rival Michigan, 86-68. To get to the final, Indiana had defeated the 1975 national champion UCLA Bruins.